Foreign Words

Foreign Words


words of foreign origin used in a given language. Depending upon the degree of assimilation into a language, foreign words are divided into borrowed words, exotic words, and barbarisms. Along with the completely assimilated borrowed words, language contains partly adopted words—for example, in Russian silos from the Spanish silos, butsy from the English “boots,” pikirovat’ from the French piquer or the German pikieren, and shorty from the English “shorts.”

Exoticisms and barbarisms have not been assimilated into a language and are not part of its system. They come into use through the necessity of expressing proper names, specific objects, or rituals and serve specific stylistic functions—for example, Dzhordzh (George), lavash (unleavened bread), or shakhsei-vakhsei (a Shiite rite). Internationalisms, words that belong to a common international pool, are also considered foreign words. Such expressions in Russian as terra inkognita, kheppi end, pardon, and radar can be included in this category. A special form is the caique, or semantic borrowing, such as the words vliianie and trogatel’nyi from the French influence and touchant. Bilingualism and intensive cultural contact lead to influxes of foreign words into a language. Excessive and indiscriminate use of foreign words reduces the effectiveness of a language.


Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv. Moscow, 1938. Pages 51–55, 150–73, 239–44, 342–410.
Bloomfield, L. Iazyk. Moscow, 1968. Pages 487–544. (Translated from English.)
Krysin, L. P. Inoiazychnye slova v sovremennom russkom iazyke. Moscow, 1968.


References in classic literature ?
Foreign words in the text annoyed her and made her bemoan her want of a classical education - she had only attended a Dame's school during some easy months - but she never passed the foreign words by until their meaning was explained to her, and when next she and they met it was as acquaintances, which I think was clever of her.
The foreign words and phrases which they use have their exact equivalents in a nobler language--English; yet they think they 'adorn their page' when they say STRASSE for street, and BAHNHOF for railway-station, and so on--flaunting these fluttering rags of poverty in the reader's face and imagining he will be ass enough to take them for the sign of untold riches held in reserve.
Titus Munson Coan, whose familiarity with the languages of the Pacific has enabled me to harmonise the spelling of foreign words in 'Typee' and'Omoo,' though without changing the phonetic method of printing adopted by Mr.
Beavers' tails and minks' flesh may do to talk about before a maple fire and a quiet hearth," interrupted the squatter, without the smallest deference to the interested feelings of the disputants; "but something more than foreign words, or words of any sort, is now needed.
You mustn't trifle with it, you know, or it may turn to pneumonia," she would go on, deriving much comfort from the utterance of that foreign word, incomprehensible to others as well as to herself.
She still drops a foreign word into her talk now and then, and there is still a subtle foreign flavor or fragrance about even her exactest English - and long may this abide
He shared his experiences with the audience and highlighted Sindhi's immense strong flexibility to absorb and accommodate foreign words and give them local colour.
He is the ultimate authority on luxury travel, also authoring Sterns Guide to the Greatest Resorts of the World, Sterns Guide to European River Boats and Hotel Barges and The Indispensable Guide to Foreign Words and Phrases.
But the poll also suggests there will be a lot of holidaymakers resorting to tried and tested tactics for making themselves understood abroad this summer, with over half (56%) admitting they have pointed at a menu to try and avoid pronouncing foreign words, while 42% say they have resorted to speaking English slowly and more loudly than usual to get their point across and around one in six (15%) say they have tried speaking English in a foreign accent.
A survey found 36% feel guilty about asking locals to speak English and over half point at menus to avoid foreign words.
Mestan and other members contest the ruling, arguing a number of Bulgarian paties either have foreign words as acronyms (nationalist Ataka or Basta) or use words that derived from other languages (Prime Minister Borisov[acute accent]s GERB party, a word used for "state emblem" or "coat of arms" that derived from Erbe, or "heritage/legacy" in German).
Google now sometimes automatically translates foreign words, even without adding translate as a keyword.

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