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(vertebrate zoology)
The first chamber of the ruminant stomach. Also known as paunch.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also paunch), the first and largest section of the four-chambered stomach of ruminants. The rumen occupies almost the entire left half of the abdominal cavity. In adult animals its volume equals four-fifths the volume of the entire stomach. In newborns, which are fed only milk, the rumen is half the size of the abomasum. The first section of the rumen is connected to the reticulum and the esophagus. The rumen’s walls consist of the serous membrane (exterior membrane), the muscular membrane (middle membrane), and the mucous membrane (interior membrane). The interior wall has bands that divide the rumen into sacs, which slow down the movement of food. The interior epithelial surface, except for the bands, has processes, or papillae. In camels and llamas the walls of the rumen have deep cells, in the floors of which open cardiac glands. Such glands are absent in the rumens of other ruminants.

Decomposition of plant substances through bacterial and protozoan activity occurs in the rumen. Volatile acids are assimilated through the surface of the mucous membrane. The food is subjected to the action of enzymes and is mixed. From the rumen the food enters the reticulum or is regurgitated into the mouth, where it is masticated again. The food then passes into the omasum through the esophageal groove.

T. B. SABLINA [22–10101]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
2011 .Quantification of invitro and invivoangiogenesis stimulated by ovine forestomach matrix.
Mukhtar, "Effect of dietary tannic acid on epidermal, lung, and forestomach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and tumorigenicity in Sencar mice," Cancer Research, vol.
The model presented in the current experiment describes an extensive operation involving ligation of the forestomach and fixing of a ring to the pyloric region, making it differ greatly from human GERD.
Glutathione S-transferases of female A/J mouse liver and forestomach and their differential induction by anti-carcinogenic organosulfides from garlic.
Enhanced tum from the perspective effect on forestomach and oesophageal squamous epithelium.
When possible, a sample of contents was immediately collected from the forestomach and a crude estimate made of stomach fullness (i.e., trace, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or full).
The stomach is used exclusively as a digestive organ rather than a storage pouch for undigested food, as in the forestomach modification seen in desert rodents (Carlton 1973).
Effect of Sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris Linn) in modulating the benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice.
EC also increased the rates of cancer of the mammary gland and ovaries in female mice and the rates of skin cancer and cancer of the forestomach in male mice.
The high capacity for digestion of fiber by collared peccaries was likely a function of their large, complex forestomach (Langer, 1978) and relatively long retention of digesta.