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Security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message.


The verification of the identity of a person or process. In a communication system, authentication verifies that messages really come from their stated source, like the signature on a (paper) letter. The most common form of authentication is typing a user name (which may be widely known or easily guessable) and a corresponding password that is presumed to be known only to the individual being authenticated. Another form of authentication is biometrics.


(1) Verifying the integrity of a transmitted message. See message integrity, email authentication and MAC.

(2) Verifying the identity of a user logging into a network. Passwords, digital certificates, smart cards and biometrics can be used to prove the identity of the client to the network. Passwords and digital certificates can also be used to identify the network to the client. The latter is important in wireless networks to ensure that the desired network is being accessed. See identity management, identity metasystem, OpenID, human authentication, challenge/response, two-factor authentication, password, digital signature, IP spoofing, biometrics and CAPTCHA.

Four Levels of Proof

There are four levels of proof that people are indeed who they say they are. None of them are entirely foolproof, but in order of least to most secure, they are:

1 - What You Know
Passwords are widely used to identify a user, but only verify that somebody knows the password.

2 - What You Have
Digital certificates in the user's computer add more security than a password, and smart cards verify that users have a physical token in their possession, but both laptops and smart cards can be stolen.

3 - What You Are
Biometrics such as fingerprints and iris recognition are more difficult to forge, but you have seen such systems fooled in the movies all the time!

4 - What You Do
Dynamic biometrics such as hand writing a signature and voice recognition are the most secure; however, replay attacks can fool the system.
References in periodicals archive ?
A generalized scheme for block-based copy-move forgery detection algorithms is summarized in Fig.
Generally, copy-move forgeries detection using block based techniques requires 7 steps [4]; the steps go from dividing the input image into overlapping blocks then calculate features of blocks and final steps are comparing blocks for forgery detection.
Test dataset is processed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed copy move forgery detection method.
98) It appears to be simply a question of judicial tradition: expertise in handwriting identification and forgery detection is reliable because the techniques have been accepted and tested in the court system over time.
Hsu, "Video Forgery Detection Using Correlation of Noise," in Proc.
By default, all of these retrieved images (for instance, at most by establishing a threshold on the number of page rank; see Section 4 for a specific threshold setting) could be passed to the successive step of forgery detection and localization, but, to reduce the amount of comparisons to be done within the second phase of the procedure, a selection functionality to skim the raw results has been envisaged and various solutions are still under analysis.
To solve the security issues in multimedia information systems, some proposed technical solutions can realize confidentiality protection, ownership protection, traitor tracing, forgery detection, media source identification and copy detection, etc.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the related work regarding copy-move forgery detection (CMFD).
Segmentation-based Image Copy-move Forgery Detection Scheme," Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on 10.
17] Hwei-Jen Lin, Chun-Wei Wang, and Yang-Ta Kao, "Fast copy-move forgery detection," WSEAS Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol.
Forgery detection capabilities are also included, when the travel document is scanned using multiple illuminations such as: visible light, UV, IR and 3M lamination and more.
There, further processing such as forgery detection and character recognition is performed.