Formant

(redirected from Formants)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

formant

[′fȯr·mənt]
(acoustics)
A set of resonances of a musical instrument or voice mechanism that form partials of sounds produced by the instrument, independent of the fundamental frequency, and give these sounds their quality.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Formant

 

a term used in phonetics to denote an acoustic characteristic of speech sounds, especially vowels; formants are associated with the frequency of the voice and are responsible for the timbre of the sound. A formant is part of the frequency spectrum of a sound, which can be obtained in the laboratory by means of a sound spectrograph. The formant represents a range of frequencies defined with respect to an average frequency and designated by the letter F.

In a sound spectrum, several formants may be isolated, for example F1 = 500 hertz (Hz), F2 = 1,500 Hz, and so on. For men, the average interval between formants is 1,000 Hz; for women and children it is somewhat greater. In most cases, however, the first two formants are sufficient to distinguish vowels. F1 (150–850 Hz) corresponds to the articulatory feature of height, or the difference between close and open vowels, and is lower for close vowels. F2 (500–2,500 Hz) corresponds to the degree to which a vowel is front or back, being higher for front vowels and lower for back vowels. The sum of the frequencies F1 + F2 corresponds to the feature of roundedness; labialization causes a reduction in the frequencies corresponding to F1 and F2.

REFERENCES

Zinder, L. R. Obshchaiafonetika. Leningrad, 1960.
Fant, G. Akusticheskaia teoriia recheobrazovaniia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)

V. A. VINOGRADOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
RME may affect formant frequencies due to the altered and anteriorly replaced tongue after RME.
To depict the formants, spFormantsTrackLpc function was used, from the sptoolbox.
The structuralist element in Sacco's legal formants approach
Vowel articulation was measured by analyzing F1 and F2 formant frequencies of /i/, /u/, and /a/ of the last vowel of the CVCV tokens in a 500-ms analysis window.
"An acoustic analysis of vowel stresses the different formant configurations that are characteristic of each vowel.
The formant positions and their bandwidths are prevailingly determined from the smoothed envelope of the voiced parts of the speech signal.
In the sequential vowel movement task, participants were asked to repeat the sequence [i-u] as quickly as possible without losing intelligibility during eight seconds as they were shown by the model provided by the second formant transition evaluation protocol of the motor speech profile module.
It is useful to explore the effects of vocal tract resonances (formants) on these tone color components.
The relationship between F1 and F2 guarantees when the first two formants of a set of vowels target are plotted on axes with proper scaling features the results closely match the traditional auditory vowel map.
Their short-time spectra are characterized by local maxima called formants and denoted as F1, F2, F3, F4, etc.
As can be seen the subject was able to sustain a fairly stable [f.sub.0] and in most cases the formants provided by the analysis show only a small drift.