Formant

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formant

[′fȯr·mənt]
(acoustics)
A set of resonances of a musical instrument or voice mechanism that form partials of sounds produced by the instrument, independent of the fundamental frequency, and give these sounds their quality.

Formant

 

a term used in phonetics to denote an acoustic characteristic of speech sounds, especially vowels; formants are associated with the frequency of the voice and are responsible for the timbre of the sound. A formant is part of the frequency spectrum of a sound, which can be obtained in the laboratory by means of a sound spectrograph. The formant represents a range of frequencies defined with respect to an average frequency and designated by the letter F.

In a sound spectrum, several formants may be isolated, for example F1 = 500 hertz (Hz), F2 = 1,500 Hz, and so on. For men, the average interval between formants is 1,000 Hz; for women and children it is somewhat greater. In most cases, however, the first two formants are sufficient to distinguish vowels. F1 (150–850 Hz) corresponds to the articulatory feature of height, or the difference between close and open vowels, and is lower for close vowels. F2 (500–2,500 Hz) corresponds to the degree to which a vowel is front or back, being higher for front vowels and lower for back vowels. The sum of the frequencies F1 + F2 corresponds to the feature of roundedness; labialization causes a reduction in the frequencies corresponding to F1 and F2.

REFERENCES

Zinder, L. R. Obshchaiafonetika. Leningrad, 1960.
Fant, G. Akusticheskaia teoriia recheobrazovaniia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
This circumstance clarifies the mechanism by which the first formant ([F.
22) Formants are peaks of acoustic energy that represent the resonance frequencies of the air in the vocal tract and are classed Fv F2, [F.
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The starting point of legal formants is to show how the law works
The primary aim of the study is to present the duration formant patterns and acoustic space of Pahari Monophthongs.
This paper describes analysis and comparison of the formant features (FF) of male and female Czech and Slovak acted speech in four emotional states: joy, sadness, anger, and a neutral state.
In the sequential vowel movement task, participants were asked to repeat the sequence [i-u] as quickly as possible without losing intelligibility during eight seconds as they were shown by the model provided by the second formant transition evaluation protocol of the motor speech profile module.
The three lowest formants, the ones associated with vowel quality, are linked to the articulators in the following way:
The relationship between F1 and F2 guarantees when the first two formants of a set of vowels target are plotted on axes with proper scaling features the results closely match the traditional auditory vowel map.
Daunys, "Movement of Formants of Sound a in Lithuanian Language", Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika (Electronics and Electrical Engineering), no.
0] and in most cases the formants provided by the analysis show only a small drift.