Fortran

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FORTRAN:

see programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fortran

 

a programming language; more precisely, a family of such languages that evolved from the original version developed in 1957 in the USA under the supervision of J. W. Backus. The name derives from “formula translation,” referring to the translation of programs written in FORTRAN into machine language. FORTRAN contains statements for assignment, conditions, cyclic operation, subroutines, storage allocation, and real and complex variables, which may have logical, integer, real, or complex values; it also includes highly developed statements for input-output. FORTRAN is the most widely used programming language for scientific and engineering calculations. The language’s specifications are fixed in several national and international standards.

REFERENCES

Pervin, Iu. A. Osnovy FORTRANa, Moscow, 1972.
Germain, C. Programmirovanie na IBM/360, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from English.)
Fortran (programming textbook). Kiev, 1976.
American Standard FORTRAN: Approved March 7, 1966. New York, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

FORTRAN

[′fȯr‚tran]
(computer science)
A family of procedure-oriented languages used mostly for scientific or algebraic applications; derived from formula translation.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Fortran

(language)
(Formula Translation) The first and, for a long time, the most widely used programming language for numerical and scientific applications. The original versions lacked recursive procedures and block structure and had a line-oriented syntax in which certain columns had special significance.

There have been a great many versions.

The name is often written "FORTRAN", harking back to the days before computers were taught about lower case, but ANSI decreed, in about 1985 via the ANSI FORTRAN Technical Committee TC, that it should be "Fortran".

See also: Fortrash.

This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

FORTRAN

(FORmula TRANslator) The first high-level programming language and compiler, developed in 1954 by IBM. It was originally designed to express mathematical formulas, and although it has been used for business applications, it is primarily used for scientific, engineering and mathematical problems. FORTRAN IV is an ANSI standard, but FORTRAN V has various proprietary versions. The following FORTRAN example converts Fahrenheit to Celsius:

   write(6,*) 'Enter Fahrenheit '
   read(5,*) XFAHR
   XCENT = (XFAHR - 32) * 5 / 9
   write(6,*) 'Celsius is ', XCENT
   stop
   end
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References in periodicals archive ?
Q: Given the prevalence of C/C++, will Fortran 2003 be relevant to anyone who does not already have a huge base of Fortran code?
Q: Is Fortran 2003 mainly important to those with pre-existing Fortran code?
The Fortran Timeline Year Who Event 1955 IBM Fortran (Formula Translation) developed by John Backus and others 1958 IBM Fortran II released 1961 IBM Fortran IV released 1966 ANSI Fortran 66 standardized (first high-level programming language to be standardized) 1978 ANSI Fortran 77 standardized 1980 ISO ANSI Fortran 77 standard adopted as the ISO Fortran standard 1991 ISO Fortran 90 standardized 1997 ISO Fortran 95 standardized 2004 ISO Fortran 2003 expected to be standardized Source: NAG