Foundation Area

Foundation Area


an excavation in the ground intended for the installation of the foundations of buildings and other engineered structures. The foundation area is usually dug from the surface of the ground, but in some cases it may be excavated by caissons. The dimensions of the foundation area in terms of area and depth are determined by the design and function of the structure, the level at which soil capable of supporting the load of the structure lies, the depth at which the soil freezes, and other factors. When building on permafrost soils, consideration must also be given to the thermal interaction of the structure and the ground.

To ensure the stability of the foundation area, it is built with sloping sides whose steepness is determined by the angle of repose. This angle, in turn, is dependent upon the angle of internal friction and cohesion, the load, the moisture of the soil, and other conditions. The angle of repose is between 15° and 50° for different types of ground. When foundation areas are very deep, the sides are given varying steepness. Where there is unstable ground, the sides of the foundation area are protected against caveins and slides by matched barriers, struts, and other means. Groundwater is removed from the foundation area by pumps or by drawdown devices. Under difficult engineering and geological conditions, unstable ground is artificially reinforced by freezing, silicification, and bitumenization. Different types of earthmovers, such as excavators, scrapers, and bulldozers, are used to create the foundation areas for new structures. On flooded terrain, foundation pits are made by suction dredges and water-jet pumps. Special machines which operate on the boring principle are used to dig foundation areas for separate supports and columns.


Tekhnologiia i organizatsiia stroitel’nogo proizvodstva. Edited by I. G. Galkin. Moscow, 1969.
Stroitel’nye normy i pravila, part 3, sec. B, ch. 1. “Zemlianye raboty.” Moscow, 1971.


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uk DAN McNALLY, British Heart Foundation area fundraising manager for the North East
The Foundation is offering professional headshots on Monday and Tuesday mornings in the Foundation area of the Exhibit Hall.
Vince Lithgo, left, operations manager of Barker and Stonehouse and British Heart Foundation area manager David Ayre BHF collecting pieces of furniture to donate |
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The job involved months of preparation related to planning and engineering, trailer computation based on shipping drawings, a site survey and the planning of route simulations prior to moving this huge unit from the Ras Al Khair jetty to the foundation area.
British Heart Foundation area manager Nigel Marston told the Telegraph: "The volunteers come in and give their time for nothing and then someone comes in and does this.
In reality, the soil around the foundation area is settling together with the soil below the foundation, causing a curved shape of the foundation curve in the diagram for uniform loads.
The values of ultimate bearing stress vary depending on the foundation area A.
In addition, other textbook analysis projects recommended limiting the review of the textbooks to two or three books per foundation area (Kramer et al.
Sue Bowens, British Heart Foundation area organiser for Birmingham, with one of the defibrillators which have just been installed at the Bullring shopping centre Picture, NEIL PUGH
As die upper portion of the building began to descend with considerable increase in momentum, each floor failed, in succession, terminating in a pile of building debris at the foundation area.

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