in setting fracing
records at the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquen Basin in northern Patagonia, Argentina.
A major challenge has been the ability of any communications company supplying telephone service to provide 911 ("emergency services") to these "nomadic" drilling and fracing
crews operating in such remote oil and gas rich regions.
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(6) Of the water used to drill and conduct initial fracing
at a single Marcellus horizontal well, roughly 10 to 30% will return to the surface as "flowback." (7) The remainder of the water and chemical mixture remains underground for an indefinite period of time, returning to the surface throughout the life of the gas well as "produced water." (8)
There has also been obstruction of the development of coal-to-oil and gas-to-oil technology, and an urgency on the part of the EPA to find a link between hydraulic fracturing (fracing
) -- cracking shale rock formations deep underground to access natural-gas deposits -- and groundwater contamination.
Hydrofracturing--also called fracking, fracing
or hydrofracking--is an old technology whose use is becoming much more widespread.
These types of reservoirs can be expensive to produce and require special operational techniques such as "fracing
" the formations to release the gas.
The process of hydraulic fracturing, or "fracing
," requires producers to pump massive quantities of water, proppants, and biocides into the ground under high pressure.
This type of development is technology driven, using one or a combination of advanced technologies that include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (also known as "fracing
") in the case of tight sands, coal bed methane, and shales, and in the case of oil sands includes open pit mining and hot water extraction, or in-situ steam extraction practices, such as steam assisted gravity drainage (Holditch 2006).
President Obama mentioned a new "fracing
" initiative in the energy policy proposal he issued at the end of March.
The ordinance also bans the storage of waters used in the "fracing
" process, which fractures the shale to release the trapped gas.
The first phase, which is under way and already yielding production results, consists of selecting wells for rework and performing cleaning, fracing
and acid treatments, essentially turning the fields back on.