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The microscopic examination of fractured metal surfaces.



the description of fractured metal surfaces in order to analyze the causes and process of fracture. Fracto-graphic examination may be performed by the unaided eye or with the use of a magnifier, optical microscope, or electron microscope. Transmission electron microscopes are used to examine a replica of the fracture surface, whose contrast is reinforced by shadowing, that is, by depositing a layer of metal on it, rather than the fracture itself. The fracture surface itself can be studied with a scanning electron microscope. The type of fracture encountered depends on the type of stress imposed (static, impact, or variable), the conditions under which stress is applied (such as the temperature and type of medium), the nature of crack extension (intragranular or intergranular fracture), and the degree of development of plastic deformation in failure (brittle or ductile fracture).


Fridman, Ia. B. Mekhanicheskie svoistva metallov, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1974. Chapter 11.
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Samples were then evaluated via ring-on-ring, and fractography was performed to determine critical flaw depths.
Dvorak, "Quantitative fractography of fish-eye crack formation under bending-torsion fatigue," International Journal of Fatigue, vol.
These early investigations laid the foundations for the methodology, analytical tools and techniques such as fractography and mechanical testing, which modern forensic investigators rely on.
His background extends to the areas of materials characterization, fractography, metallography and mechanical testing.
Lloyd, Flake and scratch size ratios in ceramics, in Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics IV, Ceramic Transactions 122, Varner JR and Quinn GD, eds.
The fatigue cracks observed during the fractography analysis had the transgranullar character (Fig.
However, the most important advantage of chirp-coded TR-NEWS, which was used previously with another complex medium in the context of NDT [9], is the fact that the focusing of ultrasound is generated exactly at the position where laser surface velocity measurements are performed, and provides TR-NEWS with an advantage for localization of cracks and also the possibility of applying a surfacic stress, which could be combined to fractography [19], and with ESAM-DORT [14] for their localization and imaging.
For instance, the knowledge of both analytical and topographical information can be of great interest when dealing with contacting surfaces (tribology), fractography, surface functionalization, optimization of a fabrication process, etc.
Five chapters offer research and review studies on real-time fatigue damage monitoring via in situ ultrasonic sensing, multiscale approaches to fatigue crack growth from the debonding of particle/ductile-matrix interfaces, advances in the numerical modeling of fatigue crack closure using finite elements, textural fractography of fatigue fractures, and a novel fractography for investigation of the fatigue fracture process in materials.
and Muramatsu, (1989) Fatigue abstract Analysis on the fracture surface and cold forging die set using the X-ray fractography, T.
This is confirmed by fractography of the Z6 specimen fracture with 1.