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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a Norwegian polar expeditionary vessel. The Fram was built in 1892 on the orders of F. Nansen. It had a displacement of 402 tons. From 1893 to 1896, during an expedition commanded by Nansen (until 1895) and later by O. Sverdrup, the ship drifted in the arctic from the Novosibirskie Islands to points north of Spitzbergen. From 1898 to 1902, Sverdrup sailed in the Fram on a voyage in the Canadian arctic archipelago. R. Amundsen led an antarctic expedition on the Fram from 1910 to 1912. The ship has been installed in a museum in Oslo.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(1) (fram) (FRiend spAM) Jokes and information forwarded to friends via email and social media every time people think something is memorable. See spam.

(2) (Ferromagnetic RAM) A non-volatile memory that records bits on a magnetic surface. See MRAM.

(3) (Ferroelectric RAM) A non-volatile memory from Cypress Semiconductor Corporation. Originally developed by Ramtron International with product shipping since 1993, F-RAM was the first commercial non-volatile RAM on the market using standard CMOS fabrication. It was initially designed as a high-performance alternative to EEPROM memory with write speed that is orders of magnitude faster and virtually unlimited write cycles. Having the attributes of RAM and the non-volatility of flash, F-RAM may eventually replace flash, DRAM and SRAM.

Polarization in a Crystal
F-RAM uses a ferroelectric capacitor composed of a crystal made up of lead and oxygen atoms plus zirconium or titanium. The crystal has two stable states. When an electric field is applied, the zirconium or titanium atom changes position. The read circuit detects the polarity of the atom as a difference in voltage, which determines the 0 or 1.

The ferroelectric name was chosen because the hysteresis characteristic of the capacitor's charge is similar to ferromagnetic materials. It is somewhat misleading because the capacitor is not made of iron (ferrous), and it is not influenced by magnetic fields. See non-volatile memory.

The Perovskite Crystal
Ferroelectric capacitors use perovskite crystals, which are found in certain rocks. Named after Russian mineralogist L. A. Perovski, the red dot in the middle is the titanium or zirconium atom, which changes its position. (Image courtesy of Ramtron International Corporation.)

Easy Integration
Providing the fastest non-volatile memory in this microcontroller (MCU), a small amount of F-RAM is integrated on this chip with SRAM and flash memory, input/output and processing circuits. (Image courtesy of Ramtron International Corporation,

Just A Few Bits
These Ramtron chips provide non-volatile storage of two or four F-RAM bits in order to maintain the state of a single switch or relay (top) or an LED (bottom). When power is turned back on, these "Nonvolatile State Saver" ICs provide the last known state. (Image courtesy of Ramtron International Corporation,
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References in periodicals archive ?
The report continued: "Fram of Shieldaig's owner has reviewed the vessel's risk assessments and introduced a policy requiring his crews to wear lifejackets at all times while working on deck and boarding and leaving the vessel.
Neil McMillan, managing director of iMpeC Developments, said: "The interest that exists in the Durham market from potential office occupiers gives us the confidence to build The Fram Well without a tenant and play our part in welcoming more employers to the city.
Headed by Arnold Fram, Katz Fram has served the Los Angeles community since it was established in 1972.
The charity, which brought Fram here for treatment earlier this month, now hopes to raise RECOVERY PS8,000 for a bionic paw and get him seen by TV Supervet Noel Fitzpatrick.
In Fram: Hele Norges Skute, Arnesen provides a great many details about the design and construction of the vessel, but gives less attention to the three major expeditions in which Fram participated.
The North Pole reveals itself to be not what government worker Oscar imagined in Fram, an artfully funny novel by Steve Himmer that raises numerous questions about the authenticity of life in modern society.
Here are some do it yourself maintenance tips from the automotive experts at FRAM Filtration.
Ferroelectric Random Access Memory, or FRAM, meets these requirements, but the efforts for the technology developments, both in Japan and United States, to manufacture the memory using the conventional semiconductor process had not been necessarily successful.