François-Alphonse Forel

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Forel, François-Alphonse


Born Feb. 2, 1841, in Morges, Switzerland; died there Aug. 8, 1912. Swiss naturalist and physician.

From 1869 to 1895, Forel was a professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of Lausanne. He studied Alpine glaciers and seismic phenomena and directed studies on glaciology. His main works in zoology dealt with freshwater fauna. Especially important were Forel’s long-term studies of the flora, fauna, and physical conditions of Lake Geneva; he was, for example, the first to study the distinctive motion of lake water known as internal waves, or seiches. Forel’s work served as the basis for the development of the science of limnology. Forel wrote the first handbook on limnology in 1901 and introduced the term “limnology”


Le Léman, monographic limnologique, vols. 1–3. Lausanne, 1892–1904.
Handbuch der Seenkunde: Allegemeine Limnologie. Stuttgart, 1901.
In Russian translation:
Instruktsiia dlia issledovaniia ozer, 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1904.
Rukovodstvo po ozerovedeniiu: Obshchaia limnologiia. St. Petersburg, 1912.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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