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(fräNsh-kôNtā`) or

Free County of Burgundy,

former province and former administrative region, E France. It is coextensive with Haute-Saône, Doubs, and Jura depts. Dôle was the capital until 1676; BesançonBesançon
, city (1990 pop. 119,134), capital of Doubs dept., E France, in Franche-Comté, on the Doubs. An industrial town with metallurgical, textile, and food-processing industries, it is especially famous for its clock and watch manufactures; its watch school is
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 was the later capital and remains the chief city. Other important towns are MontbéliardMontbéliard
, industrial town (1990 pop. 30,639), Doubs dept., E France, on the Rhône-Rhine Canal. Automobiles are the town's primary manufacture. With its surrounding countryside it constituted a county (after the 12th cent.) of the Holy Roman Empire.
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, Lons-le-SaunierLons-le-Saunier
, town (1990 pop. 20,140), capital of Jura dept., E France, at the foot of the Jura Mts. A saltwater spa since Roman times, the town has food and textile industries and varied manufactures. Parts of its Romanesque church date from the 11th cent.
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, and Saint-ClaudeSaint-Claude
, town (1990 est. pop. 13,265), Jura dept., E France, in Franche-Comté, at the confluence of the Bienne and Tacon rivers. It is a resort that has a variety of light manufactures.
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. The Jura Mts. form the region's eastern border with Switzerland; the Vosges Mts. are in the north. The chief rivers are the Doubs and the upper Saône. Franche-Comté is largely an agricultural region and has a large dairy industry. Livestock is raised in the Jura district, where there are dense pine forests and extensive grazing lands. The Peugot automobile company has two factories there. Other manufactures include clocks, watches, machines, and plastics.

The region was occupied by the Celtic tribe of the Sequani (4th cent. B.C.) and was conquered by Julius Caesar (52 B.C.). Overrun by the Burgundians (5th cent.), it was included in the First Kingdom of BurgundyBurgundy
, Fr. Bourgogne , historic region, E France. The name once applied to a large area embracing several kingdoms, a free county (see Franche-Comté), and a duchy.
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 and was annexed by the Franks in 534. The territory was united in the 9th cent. as the Free County of Burgundy, or Franche-Comté, a fief held from the kings of Transjurane Burgundy, who were later (933–1032) kings of ArlesArles, kingdom of,
was formed in 933, when Rudolf II, king of Transjurane Burgundy, united the kingdom of Provence or Cisjurane Burgundy to his lands and established his capital at Arles.
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. Franche-Comté passed to the Holy Roman Empire in 1034; but the allegiance was tenuous, and for six and a half centuries Franche-Comté was perpetually invaded and contested by France, Germany, Burgundy, Switzerland, and Spain.

Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, acquired Franche-Comté through his marriage to Margaret of Flanders in 1369. After the defeat and death of Charles the Bold (1477), the region passed to Archduke Maximilian of Austria (later Emperor Maximilian I), who in turn gave it to his son Philip I of Spain. Governed by native officials and its parlementparlement
, in French history, the chief judicial body under the ancien régime. The parlement consisted of a number of separate chambers: the central pleading chamber, called the Grand-Chambre; the Chambre des Requêtes
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 at Dôle, Franche-Comté enjoyed relative autonomy under the Spanish crown. At the end of Charles V's reign (1556), Franche-Comté became a possession of the Spanish Hapsburgs. Although some of the region's fortified towns were occupied by France during the Wars of Religion (16th cent.), peace and prosperity continued until the Thirty Years War (1618–48), when the region was ravaged by both Catholics and Protestants.

Louis XIV conquered Franche-Comté in 1668 and again in 1674 and finally obtained its cession from Spain. Although the parlement continued to function after its transfer to Besançon (1676), the provincial assembly was abolished, and Franche-Comté became an integral part of France. Established as an administrative region of France in 1972, Franche-Comté was merged with Burgundy to form the region of Burgundy-Franche-Comté in 2016.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Free County of Burgundy), a historical region in eastern France. Franche-Comté includes the department known as the Territory of Belfort and the departments of Doubs, Jura, and Haute-Saône. Area, 16,300 sq km. Population, 1,070,000(1975).

The principal city in Franche-Comté is Besançon. As of 1975, industry and construction employed 50 percent of the region’s economically active population, and agriculture 14 percent. Automobiles are assembled at the Peugeot plants in Sochaux and Montbéliard. Watches and chemical and wood products are also manufactured. In the Jura Mountains livestock is raised, and cheese is made. Forestry is a major industry in Franche-Comté, more than 40 percent of which is forested. Franche-Comté produces handicrafts and attracts many tourists. It constitutes an economic planning region of France.

The area that is now Franche-Comté became a county in the tenth century; it was known as Burgundy, and its capital was the city of Dôle. The name “Franche-Comté” (Free County) was first applied to the county of Burgundy in the 14th century after its cities had acquired various privileges from the German kings and the Burgundian dukes.

The region became part of the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century and belonged to the French king Philip V from 1316 to 1322. From 1322 to 1361 and again from 1384 to 1477 it was a possession of the dukes of Burgundy. Later Franche-Comté belonged to the Hapsburgs; it passed from the German branch of the Hapsburgs to the Spanish branch in 1558. The region, which had been occupied by French troops in 1674, was ceded to France by the Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678. The treaty gave the French all of Franche-Comté except the district of Montbéliard, which France annexed in 1793. The French transferred the capital from Dole to Besançon. Franche-Comté was divided into departments during the French Revolution.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
For some, Franche-Comte has some disadvantages due to its size and remote location, but in fact it is precisely its size and remoteness that made it possible to build on the regional traditions of co-operation well-developed in the traditional agricultural sector: communal cheese dairies is one demonstration of our ability to join forces.
B.:, The problems in Franche-Comte may seem smaller but are nonetheless the same as in all regions; the competition between certain personalities and structures is just as intense.
So, in 2004 after four years of collaborative work with two working groups (one technical, the other medical), initially without any legal framework, together with all the directors of private and public institutions in Franche-Comte and health network coordinators, one of the first Groupement de Cooperation Sanitaire [GCS, health cooperation group] health information systems in France was created.
He explains first the conditions of the French conquest of this large borderland region of Franche-Comte, and underlines, in particular, the urgency and the need of the French to defend this new province against its former master, the powerful Spanish Habsburgs.
Step by step, the royal government integrated Franche-Comte into the kingdom, especially by forcing its institutions, such as the Parlement and the Magistracy of Besancon, to conform, with more or less use of threats and rewards.
He argues that the monarchy did not have a preconceived plan in Franche-Comte but, rather, used pragmatic opportunities to impose its will.
Franche-Comte is known for its fine wines and food with regional specialities including Cremant, a sparkling wine, Vin Jaune, a light apritif wine and Vin de Paille, regarded as the most prestigious, while like any French area, it takes pride in its local produce with smoked meats and cheese such as comte and morbier to the fore.
It also offers recreation activities including walking, horse riding and cross country skiing while in the Val de Sorne is another of Franche-Comte's little secrets, a hotel with an 18-hole, par 72, golf course, set in beautifully green surroundings, which includes a six-hole pitch and putt.
TRAVEL FACTS Franche-Comte Tourism's web site: www.franche-comte.
But perhaps the most refreshing aspect of Franche-Comte for any visitor, besides the food, is the freedom offered visitors by the close proximity of the area's attractions to one another and the notable absence of throngs of tourists that can suffocate all enthusiasm out of even the hardiest of travellers.
In the early modern Franche-Comte such assumptions about female community--its existence, bonds, and values--could also be found in more official works.
Such tests had special significance in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the Franche-Comte because of the fears of demonic and witch activities.