Francisco Franco


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Franco, Francisco

(fränthēs`kō fräng`kō), 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco. During the next 10 years he enhanced his military reputation in a variety of commands and became identified politically with the conservative nationalist position. In 1934 he was appointed chief of the general staff by the rightist government, and he suppressed the uprising of the miners in Asturias. When the Popular Front came to power (Feb., 1936), he was made military governor of the Canary Islands, a significant demotion. In July, 1936, Franco joined the military uprising that precipitated the Spanish civil warSpanish civil war,
1936–39, conflict in which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic. The Second Republic
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. He flew to Morocco, took command of the most powerful segment of the Spanish army, and led it back to Spain. He became head of the Insurgent government in Oct., 1936. In 1937 he merged all the other Nationalist political parties with the FalangeFalange
[Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator.
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, assuming leadership of the new party. With German and Italian help he ended the civil war with victory for the Nationalists in Mar., 1939. Franco dealt ruthlessly with his opposition and established a firmly controlled corporative state. Although close to the AxisAxis,
coalition of countries headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, 1936–45 (see World War II). The expression "Rome-Berlin axis" originated in Oct., 1936, with an accord reached by Hitler and Mussolini. The Axis was solidified by an Italo-German alliance in May, 1939.
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 powers and despite their pressure, Franco kept Spain a nonbelligerent in World War II. He dismissed (1942) his vigorously pro-Axis minister and principal collaborator, Ramón Serrano SúñerSerrano Súñer, Ramón
, 1901–2003, Spanish politician. A conservative member of the Cortes (1933–36), he joined his brother-in-law, Francisco Franco, early in the Spanish civil war (1936–39) and became Nationalist minister of the interior
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. After the war Franco maneuvered to establish favorable relations with the United States and its allies. He further reduced the power of the Falange and erected the facade of a liberalized regime. The law of succession (1947) promulgated by Franco declared Spain a kingdom, with himself as regent pending the choice of a king. Diplomatic relations were established with the United States and other members of the United Nations in 1950, and as the cold war continued Franco secured massive U.S. economic aid in return for military bases in Spain. From 1959 onward, Franco presided over governments that were increasingly concerned with technological change and economic development. Very successful in these fields, the regime was forced to grant even greater social and political liberties, except in the Basque provinces, where a fierce struggle against separatists raged. The greater de facto freedom allowed growing vocal opposition to Franco's regime, even from the Falange, whose exclusion from power was increased after the appointment of Luis Carrero BlancoCarrero Blanco, Luis
, 1903–73, Spanish statesman and naval officer. Following the Spanish civil war, during which he served in the Nationalist navy, he became chief of naval operations on the admiralty staff and one of Francisco Franco's intimate collaborators.
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 as vice premier. Franco, however, firmly maintained his position of power, even after the assassination of Carrero Blanco in 1973. In 1969, Franco named as his successor the Bourbon prince, Juan CarlosJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
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.

Bibliography

See biographies by B. Crozier (1968), G. Hills (1968), and J. W. Trythall (1970).

Franco, Francisco

 

(Francisco Franco y Bahamonde). Born Dec. 4, 1892, in El Ferrol; died Nov. 20, 1975, in Madrid. Dictator of Spain.

Franco graduated from the Infantry Academy in Toledo. He fought in the Spanish colonial wars in Africa. In 1936, Franco led a military fascist revolt against the Spanish republic, with the help and later the open intervention of fascist Germany and Italy. In 1939, after the fall of the republic, he was declared the supreme leader (caudillo) of the Spanish state by a military junta. Franco simultaneously was the leader of the Spanish Falange party, premier (a post he relinquished in 1973), and commander in chief of the armed forces. In 1947 he passed a law on the succession to the throne, in accordance with which Spain “in conformity with tradition” was declared a kingdom, but the restoration of royal power was delayed until Franco’s departure from political life. In accordance with a decree on July 22, 1969, Prince Juan Carlos was proclaimed the next king of Spain.

References in periodicals archive ?
On se rappellera toujours du 26 avril 1937 comme le jour nefaste oo l'aviation allemande, qui etait arrivee en Espagne pour participer a la guerre civile aux cotes du general Francisco Franco et de ses troupes phalangistes, devasta avec ses bombes la ville de Guernica, sanctuaire du pays basque.
a las 04:20 horas del 20 de noviembre de 1975, a los 83 anos, moria Francisco Franco, el ultimo dictador de Europa.
Four decades after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, Spain has not completely turned the page on his dictatorship as dozens of monuments honouring his regime are still scattered across the country.
Francisco Franco, who at times receives a "pass" because of his alleged intervention which saved almost two thousand Jews from falling into Nazi hands, had little inclination to magnanimity when it came to Jews.
La frase: "A Cordero no se le da la politica", dicha cuando se conmemoraba El Principe y se producia la muerte de Suarez, obligo a comparar la pequenez con la grandeza; a un candidato que destruye todo para tratar de llegar a la presidencia de su partido, con quien encabezo la Transicion politica espanola despues de la muerte de Francisco Franco en noviembre de 1975.
In 1940, a year into World War II, German dictator Adolf Hitler invited Spanish strongman Francisco Franco to join forces with him in his quest to take over much of Europe.
02 percent in the fourth quarter of 2012, a record high since the re-birth of Spanish democracy after the death of dictator General Francisco Franco in 1975 and the second-highest level in the eurozone after Greece.
It was typical of Bigas Luna, a larger-than-life bon vivant who soon became a one-man-brand, that when Spain followed up the 1975 death of dictator Francisco Franco with a splurge of tits-and-bums quickies, Bigas Luna's second feature, 1978's Bilbao, played on the new sexual liberties to portray a hen-pecked husband who kidnaps a prostitute to slake his sexual frustrations.
The protest was called to mark the anniversary of the country's Second Republic, proclaimed on April 14, 1931, and followed by 40 years of dictatorship under General Francisco Franco after a 1936-39 civil war.
RESUMEN: Este trabajo estudia como la persona del general Francisco Franco y del jefe falangista Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera fueron transfiguradas simbolicamente mediante la construccion y propagacion de su imagen carismatica en el discurso, los ritos y las liturgias del <<nuevo Estado>> durante la guerra civil en Espana de 1936 a 1939.
That is the highest level since the return to democracy after the death of General Francisco Franco.
For example the chapter on the rise of fascism (1919-1945) includes the following subtopics: Neville Chamberlain, Francisco Franco, Sir Oswald Mosley, Benito Mussolini, and the Spanish Civil War.