Francisco Miranda


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Miranda, Francisco

 

Born Mar. 28, 1750, in Caracas; died July 14, 1816, in Cadiz. Venezuelan patriot, one of the leaders in the struggle for the independence of the Spanish colonies in America.

Miranda was of a wealthy Creole family, and while an officer in the Spanish Army maintained ties with patriotically minded Creole circles in Cuba and Venezuela. In 1783, persecuted by the Spanish authorities, he fled to North America, where he negotiated with political figures in the United States over the recruitment and arming of volunteers to aid the Creole patriots in the Spanish colonies.

In search of support from the other major powers in the struggle against Spain, Miranda traveled to Europe. In 1786–87 he visited Russia, in 1790 England, and in 1792 France, where he was attracted to the Girondins and joined the French Army. In London in 1798 he renewed negotiations with the English government, but failing to receive aid from that source, he traveled again to the United States.

In 1806, Miranda organized an expeditionary force and twice landed on the coast of Venezuela with the aim of liberating the country. Defeated, he continued to gather forces for a new attempt. Returning to Venezuela in 1810, Miranda assumed leadership of the independence struggle. In early 1812, the Venezuelan congress appointed him generalissimo and gave him dictatorial powers. But in July the republican army was forced to capitulate. According to the terms reached between Miranda and the Spanish command on July 26, 1812, those who had fought for independence would be allowed to leave the colony. Just before Miranda’s own departure, the Spanish authorities seized him and transported him to Spain, where he died in prison.

REFERENCES

Miroshevskii, V. M. Osvoboditel’nye dvizheniia v amerikanskikh koloniiakh Ispanii… . Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Lavretskii, I. R. Miranda. Moscow, 1965.
Briceno Perozo, M. Mirandonianas. Caracas [1968].

D. M. ZORINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Francisco Miranda y Michel Chauvet encarnan a aquellos relacionados con el protagonista y que representan dos alternativas de vida: quedarse con el recuerdo o lanzarse a la incertidumbre de la posibilidad.
Sahagun, president and CEO of cement importer Philcement Corp.; Jose Francisco Miranda, president of Pabaza Import and Export, Inc.; Kendrick Tan, general manager of Fortem Cement Corp.; and Paulino Garcia Jr.
"These elections may realign the political axis to a more ideological right versus left," said Francisco Miranda, a political consultant.
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Francisco Miranda is also a faculty member of the University of Aveiro.
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Despues de una revision general de la historiografia sobre la independencia en el capitulo introductorio, Brena analiza en el segundo capitulo a Francisco Miranda, el "precursor" de la independencia, como es conocido en Venezuela y Colombia, y su tragedia personal, encarcelado por su principal discipulo, Bolivar, por una supuesta traicion nunca comprobada.
On July 26, Judges Jorge Luis Salas Arenas, Francisco Miranda Molina, and Segundo Morales Parraguez presented a "Clarification of Additional Grounds," dated July 24, to the Sala Penal decision in which they admit that they voted in favor of considering the Barrios Altos case a crime against humanity, but they also said that they did not disagree with the decision.
Frente al levantamiento en Valencia, el gobierno de los timoratos actuo con lentitud y nombro al incompetente Marques del Toro para aplastar la insurreccion, labor en la que fallo por completo, teniendo que aceptar la Junta la presion del ala radical para que nombrase a Francisco Miranda, el cual decididamente toma la ciudad insurrecta y derrota a los realistas.
"Francisco Miranda is one of the greatest Latin American heroes.
These included Dr Edward Fryer, an academically inclined physician, and General Francisco Miranda, a Venezuelan revolutionary.
Illustrated by Francisco Miranda. Based on a traditional African tale, this book explores the idea that each child comes into the world with his or her own song to sing.
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