Francisco Miranda


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Miranda, Francisco

 

Born Mar. 28, 1750, in Caracas; died July 14, 1816, in Cadiz. Venezuelan patriot, one of the leaders in the struggle for the independence of the Spanish colonies in America.

Miranda was of a wealthy Creole family, and while an officer in the Spanish Army maintained ties with patriotically minded Creole circles in Cuba and Venezuela. In 1783, persecuted by the Spanish authorities, he fled to North America, where he negotiated with political figures in the United States over the recruitment and arming of volunteers to aid the Creole patriots in the Spanish colonies.

In search of support from the other major powers in the struggle against Spain, Miranda traveled to Europe. In 1786–87 he visited Russia, in 1790 England, and in 1792 France, where he was attracted to the Girondins and joined the French Army. In London in 1798 he renewed negotiations with the English government, but failing to receive aid from that source, he traveled again to the United States.

In 1806, Miranda organized an expeditionary force and twice landed on the coast of Venezuela with the aim of liberating the country. Defeated, he continued to gather forces for a new attempt. Returning to Venezuela in 1810, Miranda assumed leadership of the independence struggle. In early 1812, the Venezuelan congress appointed him generalissimo and gave him dictatorial powers. But in July the republican army was forced to capitulate. According to the terms reached between Miranda and the Spanish command on July 26, 1812, those who had fought for independence would be allowed to leave the colony. Just before Miranda’s own departure, the Spanish authorities seized him and transported him to Spain, where he died in prison.

REFERENCES

Miroshevskii, V. M. Osvoboditel’nye dvizheniia v amerikanskikh koloniiakh Ispanii… . Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Lavretskii, I. R. Miranda. Moscow, 1965.
Briceno Perozo, M. Mirandonianas. Caracas [1968].

D. M. ZORINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Tras este permiso y su vuelta a prision el jueves, dia 19 de noviembre, su abogado, Francisco Miranda, ya ha confirmado que la proxima Navidad tambien podra salir de nuevo a a la calle para pasar unos dias en familia.
Francisco Miranda is also a faculty member of the University of Aveiro.
Despues de una revision general de la historiografia sobre la independencia en el capitulo introductorio, Brena analiza en el segundo capitulo a Francisco Miranda, el "precursor" de la independencia, como es conocido en Venezuela y Colombia, y su tragedia personal, encarcelado por su principal discipulo, Bolivar, por una supuesta traicion nunca comprobada.
On July 26, Judges Jorge Luis Salas Arenas, Francisco Miranda Molina, and Segundo Morales Parraguez presented a "Clarification of Additional Grounds," dated July 24, to the Sala Penal decision in which they admit that they voted in favor of considering the Barrios Altos case a crime against humanity, but they also said that they did not disagree with the decision.
Frente al levantamiento en Valencia, el gobierno de los timoratos actuo con lentitud y nombro al incompetente Marques del Toro para aplastar la insurreccion, labor en la que fallo por completo, teniendo que aceptar la Junta la presion del ala radical para que nombrase a Francisco Miranda, el cual decididamente toma la ciudad insurrecta y derrota a los realistas.
These included Dr Edward Fryer, an academically inclined physician, and General Francisco Miranda, a Venezuelan revolutionary.
De Leon Adams tambien cuenta con el apoyo del general brigadier Ramon Corral, actual contralor y ayudante general del EMP, y con el del coronel Roberto Francisco Miranda Moreno, jefe de Fa Seccion Segunda, encargada de tareas de informacion e inteligencia.
En 1980 aparecio la sexta edicion de la Relacion de Michoacan, esta vez fue preparada por Francisco Miranda Godinez y conto con el patrocinio de la Editorial Fimax-Publicistas de Morelia.
Francisco Miranda Godinez, autor de Dos cultos fundantes: los Remedios y Guadalupe (1521-1649) (El Colegio de Michoacan, diciembre de 2001), quizas el estudio mas completo hasta ahora sobre el desarrollo historico de la adoracion en el cerro del Tepeyac, asegura estar de acuerdo con Schulemburg, debido a que no existen pruebas documentales para armar una historia ortodoxa sobre las apariciones de la Virgen de Guadalupe.
In the premodern history the dominant figure of the book's longest chapter is the "quintessential colonial" Francisco Miranda, whose dream of a liberated world in Spanish Venezuela fails partly due to his blindness to the Negro presence.
Francisco Miranda Kirchner: Co-chair, 2008 Latin American Conference, Mexico City
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