Francisco Suárez

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Suárez, Francisco

 

Born Jan. 5, 1548, in Granada; died Sept. 25, 1617, in Lisbon. Spanish theologian and philosopher; representative of “second Scholasticism.” Jesuit.

Suárez graduated from the University of Salamanca in 1570. During the period 1570–80, he taught in Salamanca, Segovia, Valladolid, and Avila, from 1580 to 1585 at the Roman College, from 1585 to 1593 in Alcalá and then again in Salamanca. Beginning in 1597 he taught at the University of Coimbra in Portugal.

Suárez greatly modified the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas and proposed some ideas similar to John Duns Scotus. Denying that essence was really distinct from existence, he held that the singular has primacy over the general: a thing is neither form nor matter but has primacy over both and is identical with the fact of being. In the disputes on the relationship between free will and divine predestination, which gained in intensity in the polemics with the proponents of Protestantism, Suárez shifted the emphasis from predestination to god’s foreknowledge: god does not determine man’s free choice but has foreknowledge of it and, in accordance with this foreknowledge of man’s path to god, confers grace.

Suárez’s doctrine was opposed by the official circles of the church but later gained wide currency among Catholic theologians. His main philosophical work, Metaphysical Disputations (1597), was very influential, in particular in the universities of the 17th century, and left a marked imprint on the work of even such anti-Scholastic philosophers as Descartes and Leibniz. Politically, Suárez justified tyrannicide: a ruler who has become a tyrant and thereby violates the divine principle of rule, which is understood as a just contract between the people and the ruler, deserves to be killed. Suárez’s treatises on natural law had a considerable influence on H. Grotius.

WORKS

Opera omnia, vols. 1–28. Paris, 1856–78.

REFERENCES

Scoraille, R. de. F. Suárez, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1912–13.
Rommen, H. Die Staatslehre des F. Suárez. Munich, 1926.
Mullaney, T. Suárez on Human Freedom. Baltimore, 1950.
Perena Vicente, L. Teoría de la guerra en F. Suárez, vols. 1–2. Madrid, 1954.
Dumont, P. Liberté humaine et concours divin d’après Suárez. Paris, 1960.
Wilenius, R. The Social and Political Theory of Francisco Suárez. Helsinki, 1963.
McCormick, J. J. A Suárezian Bibliography. Chicago, 1937.
Múgica, P. Bibliográfica suáreciana. Granada, 1948.
References in periodicals archive ?
Aqui comprobaremos algunos aspectos del modo como Francisco Suarez se situa ante este debate, con el objetivo de identificar algunos elementos de su concepcion de la naturaleza del hombre (2).
La Mesa Directiva me lo regreso porque se habia retirado dos firmas: la firma del diputado Emilio Zabadua y la del diputado Francisco Suarez Davila, uno del PRD y uno del PRI.
3) Francisco Suarez, Disputationes Metaphysicae (references to this work will be abbreviated "DM," followed by the number of the disputation, section, and paragraph), 2 vols.
En los paises protestantes la influencia suareciana no fue menor, y el calvinista holandes Jakob Revius se veia precisado a publicar en 1644 un Suarez repurgatus contra la metafisica de Suarez, cuyo extenso titulo da buena idea de su contenido: Suarez purgado o Syllabus de las Disputaciones Metafisicas de Francisco Suarez, teologo de la Compania de Jesus, con notas de Jakob Revius, doctor en Sagrada Teologia, con las que aquellas cosas que han sido correctamente explicadas por aquel autor, se defienden e ilustran donde es necesario, las que en cambio pecan contra la Filosofia y, sobre todo, contra la Teologia, se senalan y refutan (54).
Wells, Menn, and Norena's contributions are dedicated to Francisco Suarez.
1-12) y la presentacion de los autores mas representativos: Francisco de Vitoria y Domingo de Soto (los "fundadores" de dicha Escuela), Martin de Azpilcueta y Diego de Covarrubias y Leya (maximos representantes de la renovacion de ensenanza en canones), Tomas de Mercado y Bartolome de las Casas (dominicos, especialmente relevantes por sus tratados sobre los contratos y la cuestion americana, respectivamente), Luis de Molina, Juan de Mariana y Francisco Suarez (teologos e historiadores jesuitas) (cfr.
Francisco Suarez Davila, diputado del PRI, senala que la controversia constitucional es totalmente politica.
Francisco Suarez (1548-1617) may not have anything in common with Francisco Romero, but both Suarez and Romero are tied by a series of events which places them together and separates them from Descartes, Hume, and Kant.
Es un lugar comun la idea de que la historia de la filosofia ha relegado a Francisco Suarez a un segundo plano.
Incluso aquellos que tienen el adiestramiento tecnico para la labor --como los priistas Francisco Suarez Davila y Jose Luis Flores-- no podian llevarla a cabo por falta de tecnicos y equipos informaticos en el Congreso.
Alonso Getino, Jaime Torrubiano, o Ramon Hernandez; instituciones como el CSIC a traves del Instituto de Estudios Politicos o el grupo que hizo posible la coleccion del Corpus Hispanorum de Pace, el Instituto Francisco de Vitoria, la Catedra Francisco Suarez, junto a la labor institucional de la propia Universidad de Salamanca, entre otros esfuerzos.