Francisco Franco

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Franco, Francisco

(fränthēs`kō fräng`kō), 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco. During the next 10 years he enhanced his military reputation in a variety of commands and became identified politically with the conservative nationalist position. In 1934 he was appointed chief of the general staff by the rightist government, and he suppressed the uprising of the miners in Asturias. When the Popular Front came to power (Feb., 1936), he was made military governor of the Canary Islands, a significant demotion. In July, 1936, Franco joined the military uprising that precipitated the Spanish civil warSpanish civil war,
1936–39, conflict in which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic. The Second Republic
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. He flew to Morocco, took command of the most powerful segment of the Spanish army, and led it back to Spain. He became head of the Insurgent government in Oct., 1936. In 1937 he merged all the other Nationalist political parties with the FalangeFalange
[Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator.
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, assuming leadership of the new party. With German and Italian help he ended the civil war with victory for the Nationalists in Mar., 1939. Franco dealt ruthlessly with his opposition and established a firmly controlled corporative state. Although close to the AxisAxis,
coalition of countries headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, 1936–45 (see World War II). The expression "Rome-Berlin axis" originated in Oct., 1936, with an accord reached by Hitler and Mussolini. The Axis was solidified by an Italo-German alliance in May, 1939.
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 powers and despite their pressure, Franco kept Spain a nonbelligerent in World War II. He dismissed (1942) his vigorously pro-Axis minister and principal collaborator, Ramón Serrano SúñerSerrano Súñer, Ramón
, 1901–2003, Spanish politician. A conservative member of the Cortes (1933–36), he joined his brother-in-law, Francisco Franco, early in the Spanish civil war (1936–39) and became Nationalist minister of the interior
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. After the war Franco maneuvered to establish favorable relations with the United States and its allies. He further reduced the power of the Falange and erected the facade of a liberalized regime. The law of succession (1947) promulgated by Franco declared Spain a kingdom, with himself as regent pending the choice of a king. Diplomatic relations were established with the United States and other members of the United Nations in 1950, and as the cold war continued Franco secured massive U.S. economic aid in return for military bases in Spain. From 1959 onward, Franco presided over governments that were increasingly concerned with technological change and economic development. Very successful in these fields, the regime was forced to grant even greater social and political liberties, except in the Basque provinces, where a fierce struggle against separatists raged. The greater de facto freedom allowed growing vocal opposition to Franco's regime, even from the Falange, whose exclusion from power was increased after the appointment of Luis Carrero BlancoCarrero Blanco, Luis
, 1903–73, Spanish statesman and naval officer. Following the Spanish civil war, during which he served in the Nationalist navy, he became chief of naval operations on the admiralty staff and one of Francisco Franco's intimate collaborators.
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 as vice premier. Franco, however, firmly maintained his position of power, even after the assassination of Carrero Blanco in 1973. In 1969, Franco named as his successor the Bourbon prince, Juan CarlosJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
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.

Bibliography

See biographies by B. Crozier (1968), G. Hills (1968), and J. W. Trythall (1970).

Franco, Francisco

 

(Francisco Franco y Bahamonde). Born Dec. 4, 1892, in El Ferrol; died Nov. 20, 1975, in Madrid. Dictator of Spain.

Franco graduated from the Infantry Academy in Toledo. He fought in the Spanish colonial wars in Africa. In 1936, Franco led a military fascist revolt against the Spanish republic, with the help and later the open intervention of fascist Germany and Italy. In 1939, after the fall of the republic, he was declared the supreme leader (caudillo) of the Spanish state by a military junta. Franco simultaneously was the leader of the Spanish Falange party, premier (a post he relinquished in 1973), and commander in chief of the armed forces. In 1947 he passed a law on the succession to the throne, in accordance with which Spain “in conformity with tradition” was declared a kingdom, but the restoration of royal power was delayed until Franco’s departure from political life. In accordance with a decree on July 22, 1969, Prince Juan Carlos was proclaimed the next king of Spain.

References in periodicals archive ?
Whatever their intended meaning, there is little doubt that Vicens Vives' theorisation of Catalan virility above engages with imperial rhetoric in its goal to construct a distinctly Catalan narrative of national identity which, through an emphasis of the idea of Catalans as hard-working, orderly and pragmatic, could still meet the political and economic demands of the period of Second Francoism on an equal (and not lower) footing.
In order to contextualise the study of cinema during the late Francoism we must address some regulations that influenced, more or less tangentially, the cinema policy of that time: the First Development Plan of 1964, which contained the new rules for the development of cinema; the Press law (Ley de Prensa e Imprenta) of 1966 and its exemplary and very controversial second article [2], which defended the freedom of expression; and the appointment of Jose Maria Garcia Escudero as the general director of Film and Theatre.
11) This author also reaches similar conclusions with regard to Francoism in his various works on Francoist Spain.
The deliberate institutional silence his figure and works were submitted to during Francoism (1939-1975) could not avoid the process of reinstatement started by the Republican exile and the academic world, mostly from the 1960s, and his canonization process was completed once democracy was restored, with different homages and public recognition, which has made him become one of the most prestigious intellectuals of 20th century Hispanic culture.
The failure of the last reformist attempt of francoism in graphic humor of the daily press (1974-1975)
Franco himself was the driving force behind the creation of Radio Nacional de Espana (RNE) in 1937, which became the official voice of the regime, and he tolerated the proliferation of stations promoted by various factions of the Movimiento Nacional (National Movement, a fascist-inspired totalitarian ideology on which Francoism was based): the ultra right-wing party Falange (Red de Emisoras del Movimiento, REM), the official trade unions (Cadena de Emisoras Sindicales, CES) and the youth indoctrination organisations (Cadena Azul de Radiodifusion, CAR).
Another demand was that of amnesty for political prisoners of Francoism, which generated numerous grassroots mobilizations and public demonstrations.
On the other hand, the isolation suffered during the francoism through its nationalists ideas.
The "Generation of 1927," therefore, is not in opposition to a wider tradition but rather continues the movement toward greater national and literary-cultural unity under Francoism.
ETA began as a national liberation movement in the context of Francoism in the Basque Country in Spain.
12) In the second and third decades of the twentieth century, Unamuno had recourse to leprosy as a figure for the malady undermining Spain's national character, much as Luis Martin Santos would later use cancer to figure Spain's diseased culture under Francoism.