Francisco Franco

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Franco, Francisco

(fränthēs`kō fräng`kō), 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco. During the next 10 years he enhanced his military reputation in a variety of commands and became identified politically with the conservative nationalist position. In 1934 he was appointed chief of the general staff by the rightist government, and he suppressed the uprising of the miners in Asturias. When the Popular Front came to power (Feb., 1936), he was made military governor of the Canary Islands, a significant demotion. In July, 1936, Franco joined the military uprising that precipitated the Spanish civil warSpanish civil war,
1936–39, conflict in which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic. The Second Republic
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. He flew to Morocco, took command of the most powerful segment of the Spanish army, and led it back to Spain. He became head of the Insurgent government in Oct., 1936. In 1937 he merged all the other Nationalist political parties with the FalangeFalange
[Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator.
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, assuming leadership of the new party. With German and Italian help he ended the civil war with victory for the Nationalists in Mar., 1939. Franco dealt ruthlessly with his opposition and established a firmly controlled corporative state. Although close to the AxisAxis,
coalition of countries headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, 1936–45 (see World War II). The expression "Rome-Berlin axis" originated in Oct., 1936, with an accord reached by Hitler and Mussolini. The Axis was solidified by an Italo-German alliance in May, 1939.
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 powers and despite their pressure, Franco kept Spain a nonbelligerent in World War II. He dismissed (1942) his vigorously pro-Axis minister and principal collaborator, Ramón Serrano SúñerSerrano Súñer, Ramón
, 1901–2003, Spanish politician. A conservative member of the Cortes (1933–36), he joined his brother-in-law, Francisco Franco, early in the Spanish civil war (1936–39) and became Nationalist minister of the interior
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. After the war Franco maneuvered to establish favorable relations with the United States and its allies. He further reduced the power of the Falange and erected the facade of a liberalized regime. The law of succession (1947) promulgated by Franco declared Spain a kingdom, with himself as regent pending the choice of a king. Diplomatic relations were established with the United States and other members of the United Nations in 1950, and as the cold war continued Franco secured massive U.S. economic aid in return for military bases in Spain. From 1959 onward, Franco presided over governments that were increasingly concerned with technological change and economic development. Very successful in these fields, the regime was forced to grant even greater social and political liberties, except in the Basque provinces, where a fierce struggle against separatists raged. The greater de facto freedom allowed growing vocal opposition to Franco's regime, even from the Falange, whose exclusion from power was increased after the appointment of Luis Carrero BlancoCarrero Blanco, Luis
, 1903–73, Spanish statesman and naval officer. Following the Spanish civil war, during which he served in the Nationalist navy, he became chief of naval operations on the admiralty staff and one of Francisco Franco's intimate collaborators.
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 as vice premier. Franco, however, firmly maintained his position of power, even after the assassination of Carrero Blanco in 1973. In 1969, Franco named as his successor the Bourbon prince, Juan CarlosJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
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.

Bibliography

See biographies by B. Crozier (1968), G. Hills (1968), and J. W. Trythall (1970).

Franco, Francisco

 

(Francisco Franco y Bahamonde). Born Dec. 4, 1892, in El Ferrol; died Nov. 20, 1975, in Madrid. Dictator of Spain.

Franco graduated from the Infantry Academy in Toledo. He fought in the Spanish colonial wars in Africa. In 1936, Franco led a military fascist revolt against the Spanish republic, with the help and later the open intervention of fascist Germany and Italy. In 1939, after the fall of the republic, he was declared the supreme leader (caudillo) of the Spanish state by a military junta. Franco simultaneously was the leader of the Spanish Falange party, premier (a post he relinquished in 1973), and commander in chief of the armed forces. In 1947 he passed a law on the succession to the throne, in accordance with which Spain “in conformity with tradition” was declared a kingdom, but the restoration of royal power was delayed until Franco’s departure from political life. In accordance with a decree on July 22, 1969, Prince Juan Carlos was proclaimed the next king of Spain.

References in periodicals archive ?
When the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party was narrowly defeated by the Popular Party, a conservative party with ties to Francoism, many feared the return of its fascist policies.
But in so far as pre-packaged Benavis stands as both an example and figure of the persistence of Francoism in postFranco Spain, Tom's longing for Almanzora can also be read as the longing for a genuinely transitional space in which the past would be successfully left behind rather than duplicitously carried forward.
62) In the progressive press, this middle-class woman symbolized the remnants of Francoism, embodied in the person of Franco's widow, Carmen Polo, but also in the nameless women in black pictured at a mass for the assassinated Carrero Blanco (Franco's chosen successor, assassinated in 1973), or identified in stories about Francoist gatherings or the Alianza Popular (the right-wing party linked with Francoist supporters).
The assumption that the housewife--ie, the woman in her family--was particularly saturated with Francoism, linked women to the old undemocratic regime.
Therefore, the ambiguity in these films can be read as a reflection of a national anxiety regarding the many changes that the end of Francoism would bring.
They did so through crafted yet subtle cinematic indictments of Francoism which were celebrated first abroad, and later domestically, by audiences eager for images that rejected (Spanish) fascism (339).
Employing Raymond Williams' paradigmatic concept of "structure of feeling" -- a set of social and cultural experiences shared by a particular generation at an specific historical time and place -- the author examines how Munoz Molina's narrative becomes a series of "textual representations" (13) that outline the structure of feeling of two distinct but overlapping periods of Spain's most controversial history: Francoism and the Transition.
The author also explores the role of the Catholic Church within this structure of feeling and the consequences of the Civil War and Francoism by using Spain as a biblical analogy of the lost paradise.
Following an introductory overview of Franco and Francoism, the text explores the country's political, social, and economic transformation, and its developments in popular culture and the arts, over six distinct periods, from 1939--the period leading up to Francoism--to 2004 and the tensions between democracy and terrorism.
The uneven modernity in Spain of the early twentieth century quickly being followed by the sense of isolation that accompanied the long years of Francoism exacerbated the inequalities of material and cultural development, so that the initially heady focus on democracy and progress had before long to confront its own instabilities.
Both belong to the post-Francoist generation of producers of cultural texts, although in Llamazares's case, the experience of Francoism underlines much of his previous work.
Judged from the perspective of (anti-)Francoist historiography, Mariscal's films as both actress and director fall outside the oppositional cannon and are thus deemed complicit with Francoism.