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Francia (fränˈchä), c.1450–1517, Italian painter, goldsmith, and medalist of the early Bolognese school, whose real name was Francesco Raibolini. Until the age of 40 he was famous chiefly as a goldsmith and engraver of nielli and of dies for medals. His paintings reflect the influence of Perugino and Raphael. Among the most noted are Crucifixion (Louvre); Pietà (National Gall., London); and Assumption (Church of San Frediano, Lucca). Others include Head of the Virgin (Pa. Acad. of the Fine Arts); Madonna (Gardner Mus., Boston); a portrait of Federigo Gonzaga (Metropolitan Mus.); and Madonna and Child (National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.).


See study by G. C. Williamson (1907).

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The surviving manuscripts from the West and East Frankish kingdoms contain distinctly different repertories of pieces, roughly corresponding to the regions on either side of the Rhine.
Jorg Drauschke offers a very careful and trustworthy summary in "The Development of Diplomatic Contacts and Exchange between the Byzantine Empire and the Frankish kingdoms until the Early Eighth Century." Jose Cristobal Carvajal Lopez, Julio Miguel Roman Punzon, Miguel Jimenez Puertas, and Javier Martinez Jimenez in "When the East Came to the West: The Seventh Century in the Vega of Granada (South-East Spain): Visigoths, Byzantines and Muslims," offer insights on the border between Byzantines and Visigoths in southern Spain.
The topics include Sutton Hoo and Sweden revisited, approaches to the Frankish community in the Chronicle of Fredegar and Liber Historiae Francorum, the development of diplomatic contacts and exchange between the Byzantine Empire and the Frankish kingdoms until the early eight century, from early Byzantium to the Middle Ages in Sagalassos, seventh-century movements of populations in the light of Egyptian papyri, Ibn al-Zybayr and legitimating power in seventh-century Islamic history, and irrigation in Khuzistan after the Sasanians.
The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 151-981.
Since Rosamund McKitterick's studies of the use of literacy--the ability to read and write Latin--in the Frankish kingdoms, scholarly attention has extended to the ways in which people who could not read and write nevertheless participated in practices that involved written material.
Part 1 of the series comprises two volumes pertaining to the Frankish kingdoms, northern Netherlands, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, and Austria (v.1); and the Meuse region and southern Netherlands (v.2).
Dunning, the first serious student of Anglo-Saxon and medieval pottery, had identified the continental origins of a miscellany of imported potsherds found on small-scale digs in Hamwic, Anglo-Saxon Southampton, and from building sites in London, and used them as indices of commerce to reconstruct the earliest English long-distance trade with the Frankish kingdoms between the Rhine and Seine.
According to the authors, an especially significant part of the cultural borrowings between the eastern and western Frankish kingdoms was the development of illustrated histories that used visual images of the crusaders.
3 (Amsterdam, Oxford, and New York: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1977), and Rosamund McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London and New York: Longman, 1983) are good introductory studies of the Carolingians.
What eventuated culturally in the northern areas, as a result of greater mobility between Spain and the Frankish kingdoms beginning in the mid-twelfth century, was an amalgam of the Judeo-Arabic cultural traditions with those of Ashkenaz.
Nelson, `The Frankish Kingdoms, 814-898: The West', ibid.; Johannes Fried, `The Frankish Kingdoms, 817-911: The East and Middle Kingdoms', ibid.
of Notre Dame in September 2004, McKitterick (medieval history, Cambridge U.) expands upon earlier work in which she examined the writing and reading of history in the Frankish kingdoms of the eighth and ninth centuries, seeking out what was meant by history books, what the Franks understood of historical texts, and how they constructed and understood their past.