Frantisek Palacky

Palacký, František

 

Born June 14, 1798, in Hodslavice, Moravia; died May 26, 1876, in Prague. Czech historian and philosopher. Cultural figure and leader of the Czech national movement in the 19th century. Son of a teacher.

In 1818, Palacký and P. J. Ŝafařík published the Principles of Czech Poetry, the manifesto of the Awakeners, showing the need for a revival of national culture and learning. His works on the philosophy of aesthetics— Short History of Aesthetics (1823) and The Study of the Beautiful (1827)—were the first philosophical works of the period of the national renaissance to be published in Czech. Palacký helped reorganize the Czech National Museum, which became an important center of the country’s scientific and cultural life, and was one of the founders of the Matice Česka, established in 1831. He founded the first Czech scientific journal, Časopis společnosti vlastenského museum v Čechách, in 1827 and served as its editor until 1838. He published numerous sources on the history, literature, and art of medieval Bohemia, including Czech chronicles. In the 1840’s he began publishing the multivolume collections of sources Archiv český and Fontes rerum Bohemicarum.

Palacký wrote numerous works on the history of Bohemia. His main work, the History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia, covers Czech history from the earliest times to 1526. He considered the Hussite movement to be the most important period in Czech history, regarding it as a struggle for freedom and legal rights, a striving for new social relations, and the Czech people’s contribution to humanity’s progressive development. His History played an important role in the development of Czech culture and the national liberation movement.

During the 1840’s, Palacký was a leader of the Czech bourgeois national liberal movement. During the Revolution of 1848–49, he proposed a detailed program of Austroslavism and presided over the Slavic Congress in Prague (1848). From the late 1840’s to the early 1860’s, he was a deputy to the Austrian Reichsrat and the Czech Diet. From the 1860’s he was one of the ideological leaders of the conservative wing of the Czech bourgeoisie, known as the Old Czech Party.

WORKS

Déjiny národu českého v Cechách a v Moravě, vols. 1–6. Prague, 1939.

REFERENCES

Udal’tsov, I. I. “K kharakteristike politicheskoi deiatel’nosti F. Palatskogo.” Voprosy istorii, 1950, no. 10.
Jetmarová, M. František Palacký. Prague, 1961.

N. M. PASHAEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Five nineteenth-century historians are considered: Joachim Lelewel, Simonas Daukantas, Frantisek Palacky, Michaly Horvath, and Mihail Kogalniceanu.
Moreover, focusing on the great European powers, he misses some of the quieter nineteenth-century roots of the global imaginary in the liberal views of Giuseppe Mazzini and Frantisek Palacky who, like Gandhi and Fanon, equated national independence for their people with freedom and justice for all.
This task was then continued in the later part of the nineteenth century by the "fathers of the Czech nations" such as Frantisek Palacky, the founder of the movement called Austro-Slavism, which agitated in favor of a separate Slavic (Czech) federal entity within the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Central to the obrozeni were the writings of the historian Frantisek Palacky.
79) According to Frantisek Palacky, Josef Dobrovsky, who might be considered the father of modern Czech, "had long abandoned hope for the revival of a Czech national literature and was also always later of the opinion that at best it might evolve only as a general popular literature": F.