Frants, Robert Iakovlevich
(also Roberts Francis; party pseudonyms included Iosif and Vaniushin). Born Jan. 31 (Feb. 12), 1874, in Kronvircavas Volost (small rural district), now Jelgava Raion of the Latvian SSR; died Oct. 17, 1918, in Gulbene. Participant in the Russian revolutionary movement. Member of the Communist Party from 1904.
The son of a peasant, Francis entered the Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1903 and joined various revolutionary circles. In 1905 and 1906 he was a member of the Riga committee of the RSDLP. In 1906 he served as a delegate to the Fourth (Unity) Congress of the RSDLP. He was repeatedly arrested and exiled. In 1908 and 1909 he carried out work for the Riga committee of the Social Democracy of the Latvian Territory.
After the February Revolution of 1917, Francis became deputy chief of the Riga militia. After the city was surrendered to German troops by General L. G. Kornilov on Aug. 21 (Sept. 3), 1917, Francis engaged in underground party work. He was arrested by the occupation forces in January 1918 and died in a concentration camp.