Francis Joseph

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Francis Joseph

Francis Joseph or Franz Joseph, 1830–1916, emperor of Austria (1848–1916), king of Hungary (1867–1916), nephew of Ferdinand, who abdicated in his favor. His long reign began in the stormy days of the revolutions of 1848 and ended in the midst of World War I. In that troubled period of growing nationalism, he held the many peoples of his empire together. He subdued Hungary (1849) and in the same year defeated Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. In the Italian War of 1859, in which he faced Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel, he lost Lombardy to Sardinia by the Treaty of Villafranca di Verona. In the Austro-Prussian War (1866) his only territorial loss was that of Venetia to Italy, but his crushing defeat resulted in the loss of Austrian influence over German affairs and in the ascendancy of Prussia. Constant pressure from Hungary led to the reorganization (1867) of the empire as a dual monarchy—the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. In 1879, Francis Joseph joined Germany in an alliance that later also included Italy (see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente). His reign, although it brought material prosperity, was disturbed by the discontent of the national minorities, notably the Slavs. When Russian Pan-Slavism backed Serbia, particularly after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908), a situation was created that helped bring on World War I. Francis Joseph's private life was beset by the tragedies falling on his wife, Empress Elizabeth, his brother, Maximilian of Mexico, and his son, Archduke Rudolf. In 1914 his nephew, the heir apparent, Francis Ferdinand, was assassinated, and his death was the spark that set off World War I. Francis Joseph died before the empire actually fell apart under the impact of military defeat, as it did under his successor, Charles I.

Bibliography

See biographies by J. Redlich (1928; tr. 1929, repr. 1965), K. Tschuppik (1928, tr. 1930), A. Murad (1968), and A. Palmer (1995); C. W. Clark, Franz Joseph and Bismarck (1934, repr. 1968); E. Crankshaw, Fall of the House of Habsburg (1963, repr. 1971); G. B. Marek, The Eagles Die (1974).

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Maria Theresa, her children, and their successors ruled one after another, until her descendent Franz Joseph I died in 1916.
What is certain is that, after Maximilian's sad end, the island was bought by his brother, Franz Joseph, for his son, the wretched Rudolf.
Both selections -- Franz Joseph's Advent aria "Ein' Magd, ein' Dienerin'' and Michael's "Ihr Himmel, taut herab'' -- are driven by a sense of flowing lyricism and marked by inventive accompaniments that help paint the meanings of their respective lyrics (for instance, leaping organ and violin figures depicting falling rain in the latter).
The royal couple switched to a new car, another open-top, and after confusion over the route their motorcade stopped on Franz Joseph Street outside Schiller's delicatessen where Princip was waiting.
Franz Joseph and Elisabeth; the last great monarchs of Austria-Hungary.
According to reports, Mehta and his Bavarian State Orchestra played its full cast of works of Ludwig Van Beethoven, Franz Joseph Haydn and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in front of an invited audience of 1,500 guests.
Experience a guided tour and explore attractions such as the River Danube before visiting the breathtaking city of Vienna, where you will stay at the Hotel Kaiser Franz Joseph.
From the childlike thrill of the crunchy snow beneath my crampon-covered feet, to the humming chimes of the blue ice, Franz Joseph Glacier, was truly a wonder to behold.
Franz Joseph I stood up for his Jewish subjects when they were threatened by German anti-Semites.
Contents: Franz Joseph Haydn, Concerto for Two Horns and Orchestra in E[flat], hobVII/2; W.
Obviously in a book covering such a wide topic there are generalisations with which many will not agree and judgements that are far wide of the mark: Franz Joseph was not an 'ineffectual' monarch while the idea that post-1702 British history can be fully understood without reference to the monarchy is ludicrous.
She played, sang, and composed at court in Bayreuth and then at Esterhazy, and whs influenced strongly by Franz Joseph Haydn and also, arguably, by the emotional and expressive style of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.