The neglect of the German contribution to the Third Crusade is owed, perhaps, to its somewhat anticlimactic ending: following a lengthy journey through Hungary, Byzantium, and Asia Minor, its leader, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
, drowned somewhat ignominiously in a river without actually reaching the Holy Land.
Cardinal Ronaldo favoured supporting William, king of Sicily, against Frederick Barbarossa
, while Ottaviano leaned the opposite way.
, stiff-necked for a long time, eventually did the right thing; so, too, did the Corsicans, illustrating that collectivities, not just kings, were called upon to be humble vis-a-vis the church.
There were problems with the Normans in the south and with the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa
. Adrian crowned him in 1155, but Frederick left the Pope in no doubt that as Emperor of Rome he intended to control Rome, and when they first met he ostentatiously refused the usual courtesy of holding the Pope's stirrup.
Rogers takes up in turn the Near East during the impact of the First Crusade, the capture of the Palestinian coastal cities, Norman siege warfare in Sicily and southern Italy, the struggles of the Lombard cities with each other and with Frederick Barbarossa
, the Luso-Hispanic Reconquest in Iberia, and the development of seaborne siege campaigning, this last largely in the hands of the Italian maritime cities.
Born in Italy in 1194, heir to the Hohenstaufen territories in Germany and grandson of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
, he was also the heir to the Norman kingdom of Sicily.
And on the other (and for reasons which are far from clear), Anglo-American scholars began to interest themselves in the subject, with the result that in 1998 the world of the Cid is as accessible to anglophone students of the European Middle Ages as the worlds of Frederick Barbarossa
and St Louis, and Simon Barton can afford to take a great deal for granted in a thoroughly researched study in which he is able to present the aristocracy of twelfth-century Leon and Castile in much the same terms as J.C.
The German monarchy at its medieval height literally canonised Charles, After Frederick Barbarossa
's elevation of the body from its tomb in 1165 -- an occasion marked by the gift of the great copper and gilt candelabra by which the church is still lit -- Frederick II in 1215 drove the last nail into the splendid golden shrine which has since housed Charles' remains.
Perhaps here lies a final reason for the use by the Sienese of the Venetian version of the story of Alexander and Frederick Barbarossa
-- and indeed for getting the pope into the palace.
is organized chronologically through seventeen chapters, which are bracketed by an introduction, a conclusion, and an epilogue.
Part 3, 'Medieval Rulership', examines the rhetoric of kingship in early Germanic monarchies, while Part 4 focuses specifically on Frederick Barbarossa
and his relations with the papacy.
Northern Italy, for example, is noticeably richer than southern Italy, thanks in part to the Lombard League, a medieval alliance that successfully fought off an invasion from German conqueror Frederick Barbarossa
and preserved a tradition of relative market and citizen freedom in a collation of "free cities" in 1176.