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Frederick III,king of Prussia: see Frederick IIIFrederick III,
1831–88, emperor of Germany and king of Prussia (Mar.–June, 1888), son and successor of William I. In 1858 he married Victoria, the princess royal of England, who exerted considerable influence over him.
..... Click the link for more information. , 1831–88, emperor of Germany and king of Prussia.
Frederick III(Frederick the Pious), 1515–76, elector palatine (1559–76). The first German prince to accept Calvinism, he ordered the Heidelberg Catechism (1563) drawn up (see under HeidelbergHeidelberg
, city (1994 pop. 139,430), Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany, picturesquely situated on the Neckar River. Manufactures include machinery, precision instruments, leather goods, and tobacco and wood products.
..... Click the link for more information. ). He aided the Calvinists in the Netherlands and in France.
Frederick III,1831–88, emperor of Germany and king of Prussia (Mar.–June, 1888), son and successor of William IWilliam I,
1797–1888, emperor of Germany (1871–88) and king of Prussia (1861–88), second son of the future King Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1858 he married VictoriaVictoria
(Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa), 1840–1901, empress of Germany, daughter of Victoria of England. In 1858 she married the German crown prince (later Emperor Frederick III). After her husband's death in 1888, she was generally known as Empress Frederick.
..... Click the link for more information. , the princess royal of England, who exerted considerable influence over him. Frederick was a liberal and a patron of art and learning. In the Franco-Prussian War he distinguished himself as a military commander. He was popular, and much good was expected of his reign, but he died of cancer of the throat soon after his accession and was succeeded by his son, William IIWilliam II,
1859–1941, emperor of Germany and king of Prussia (1888–1918), son and successor of Frederick III and grandson of William I of Germany and of Queen Victoria of England.
..... Click the link for more information. . His war diary of 1870–71 has been translated into English.
Frederick III,1609–70, king of Denmark and Norway (1648–70), son and successor of Christian IV. He at first made great concessions to the powerful nobles but later asserted his own power. In 1657 war with Sweden began anew. Charles XCharles X,
1622–60, king of Sweden (1654–60), nephew of Gustavus II. The son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrücken, he brought the house of Wittelsbach to the Swedish throne when his cousin, Queen Christina, abdicated in his favor.
..... Click the link for more information. of Sweden forced Denmark to accept the humiliating Treaty of Roskilde (1658). Charles soon renewed the war, and it was only through the heroic defense of Copenhagen by Frederick, assisted by Dutch ships, that the Danish kingdom was saved from utter destruction. The Netherlands and Brandenburg, allies of Denmark, then assisted in repulsing the Swedes, and the peace of Copenhagen was made (1660). Denmark lost Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge to Sweden. Denmark was devastated and in debt. To help the country recover, the burghers and clergy united to end aristocratic power and privilege. The monarchy was declared hereditary, and the state administration was centralized and staffed by civil servants. A constitution granting absolute power to a hereditary monarch was published after Frederick's death (see GriffenfeldGriffenfeld, Peder Schumacher, Count
, 1635–99, Danish politician. The son of a merchant, he became (1665) secretary to Frederick III. In 1665 Griffenfeld drew up the Kongelov [king's law], which established an absolute monarchy in Denmark.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Frederick was succeeded by his son, Christian V.
Frederick III,1415–93, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93). With his brother Albert VI he inherited the duchies of Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. He became head of the house of HapsburgHapsburg
, ruling house of Austria (1282–1918). Rise to Power
The family, which can be traced to the 10th cent., originally held lands in Alsace and in NW Switzerland. Otto (d.
..... Click the link for more information. at the death (1439) of his distant cousin Albert II, whom he was elected (1440) to succeed as German king. Although Frederick was generally a weak ruler, he made considerable progress toward reuniting the Hapsburg family lands under his own branch. On Albert II's death Frederick became guardian for his young son Ladislaus Posthumus (see Ladislaus VLadislaus V
or Ladislaus Posthumus,
1440–57, king of Hungary (1444–57) and, as Ladislaus I, king of Bohemia (1453–57). Ladislaus, duke of Austria by birth as the posthumous son of Albert of Hapsburg, duke of Austria and German king (see Albert II),
..... Click the link for more information. ) and regent of Austria for Ladislaus. In Bohemia and Hungary, however, he was unable to establish himself as regent for Ladislaus. In 1453 he temporarily lost Austria when he was forced to give up the youth. After the death (1457) of Ladislaus, Frederick relinquished Bohemia to George of PodebradGeorge of Podebrad
, 1420–71, king of Bohemia (1458–71). A Bohemian nobleman, he became leader of the Utraquists, or the moderate Hussites, in the wars between Hussites and Catholics.
..... Click the link for more information. and Hungary to Matthias CorvinusMatthias Corvinus
, 1443?–1490, king of Hungary (1458–90) and Bohemia (1478–90), second son of John Hunyadi. He was elected king of Hungary on the death of Ladislaus V. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III sought to contest the election but recognized him in 1462.
..... Click the link for more information. . In Austria, his succession to Ladislaus as duke was challenged by his brother, but Albert's death (1463) left Frederick with an undisputed claim. In 1485, Matthias Corvinus, who had invaded Bohemia and Austria, occupied Vienna, and Frederick was forced to abandon his hereditary lands. However, longevity again proved an advantage; Matthias died in 1490, and Frederick recovered his possessions. In his relations with the Roman Catholic Church, Frederick was guided by his secretary, the brilliant Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius IIPius II
, 1405–64, pope (1458–64), an Italian named Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (often in Latin, Aeneas Silvius), renamed Pienza after him, b. Corsigniano; successor of Calixtus III.
..... Click the link for more information. ). In return for his support of Pope Eugene IVEugene IV,
1383–1447, pope (1431–47), a Venetian named Gabriele Condulmer; successor of Martin V. He was of exemplary character and ascetic habits. Gregory XII, his uncle, made him cardinal (1408).
..... Click the link for more information. against Antipope Felix V (see Amadeus VIIIAmadeus VIII
, 1383–1451, count (1391–1416) and duke (from 1416) of Savoy, antipope (1439–49) with the name Felix V. In 1434 he appointed his son regent of Savoy and retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, on Lake Geneva, which he had founded.
..... Click the link for more information. ), Frederick was promised an imperial coronation at Rome and various subsidies and revenues. He was the last emperor crowned at Rome. Frederick's greatest success was his acquisition of Burgundy, including the Netherlands and Belgium, for the house of Hapsburg. In 1473 at an interview at Trier with Charles the BoldCharles the Bold,
1433–77, last reigning duke of Burgundy (1467–77), son and successor of Philip the Good. As the count of Charolais before his accession, he opposed the growing power of King Louis XI of France by joining (1465) the League of Public Weal.
..... Click the link for more information. of Burgundy, Frederick attempted to arrange the marriage of his son, later King Maximilian IMaximilian I,
1459–1519, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. As emperor, he aspired to restore forceful imperial leadership and inaugurate much-needed administrative reforms in the increasingly
..... Click the link for more information. , to Charles's daughter Mary of BurgundyMary of Burgundy,
1457–82, wife of Maximilian of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I), daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. The marriage of Mary was a major event in European history, for it established the Hapsburgs in the Low Countries and
..... Click the link for more information. . However, he was not prepared to meet Charles's demands and the negotiations ended abruptly. In 1477, soon after the defeat and death of Charles at Nancy, the marriage of Maximilian and the Burgundian heiress nevertheless took place and netted Austria a huge and cheap prize. This alliance set the pattern for the subsequent marriages and successions through which the Hapsburgs came to dominate a large part of the globe. In 1486, Maximilian was elected king of the Romans, or German king, and after 1490, Frederick resigned most of his duties to his son. The anagram AEIOU, inscribed on Frederick's personal possessions, has traditionally been explained as signifying Austria est imperare orbi universo [Lat.,=it is Austria's destiny to rule the whole world] or Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan [Ger.,=all the earth is subject to Austria].
Frederick the Wise,1463–1525, elector of Saxony (1486–1525). At Wittenberg he founded (1502) the university where Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis
Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. and MelanchthonMelanchthon, Philip
, 1497–1560, German scholar and humanist. He was second only to Martin Luther as a figure in the Lutheran Reformation. His original name was Schwarzerd [Ger.,=black earth; "melanchthon" is the Greek rendering of "black earth"].
..... Click the link for more information. taught. At a crucial period for the early Reformation, Frederick protected Luther from the pope and the emperor, and took him into custody at the Wartburg castle after the Diet of Worms (1521), which put Luther under the imperial ban. Frederick, however, had little personal contact with Luther and remained a Catholic, although he gradually inclined toward the doctrines of the Reformation.
1. 1415--93, Holy Roman Emperor (1452--93) and, as Frederick IV, king of Germany (1440--93)
2. called the Wise. 1463--1525, elector of Saxony (1486--1525). He protected Martin Luther in Wartburg Castle after the Diet of Worms (1521)