Their topics include day and night: topography and renewal in Thoreau's Walden and Dougless' Narrative, palimpsest of subjugation: inscriptions of domination on the land and the human body in Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres, a harmony of murder: transatlantic visions of wilderness in Werner Herzog's Grizzly Man, dark Darwin: (d)evolutionary theory and the logic of vampirism in Bram Stoker's Dracula, and picturing Eden: contesting Fredrika Bremer
The Swedish novelist Fredrika Bremer (1801-1865) and the Finnish Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg (1857-1913), both active women's rights advocates who toured in the United States in the 1850s and 1880s, respectively, used their travel writing as a powerful medium in promoting their ideological agendas.
Fredrika Bremer, who fondly had cared for her country of birth, had always followed the developments in Finland with great interest.
Fredrika Bremer, Life, Letters, and Posthumous Works of Fredrika
Such women as the English poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861), the Swedish novelist and women's rights advocate Fredrika Bremer (1801-1865), and the future leader of women's temperance movement Frances Willard (1839-1898) admired the determination and successful self-realization of the US-American female sculptors studying and working in Italy.
Another visitor in Rome, who was fascinated with Hosmer and provided testimony of her life in Rome during her visit there in the spring of 1858 was the Swedish novelist Fredrika Bremer. At the time of her Italian tour, Bremer was already famous in Europe and the United States for her controversial novels in which she promoted women's emancipation.
Anthony, and Margaret Fuller in the United States; Barbara Bodichon, Frances Wright and Harriett Martineau in the British Isles; and Swedish Fredrika Bremer
and Finnish Alexandra Gripenberg on the Continent.
The author is on surer ground with her analysis of reformers and utopians in chapter six; while her final chapters, in which she examines what she calls the "mothers of the matrix," (Anna Doyle Wheeler, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Fredrika Bremer
, and Frances Power Cobbe), are a tour de force in which the growth of a new paradigm for women is delineated with clarity and conviction (6).
Thus in Part I, the first chapter entitled 'The Pioneers' is followed by more detailed studies of Fredrika Bremer
, Selma Lagerlof, and Elin Wagner, the main chronicler of the women's suffrage movement in Swedish literature.
These contemporaries are mainly British, but there are significant entries by French, German, Swedish, and American readers, including Fredrika Bremer
, Emile Montegut, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Karl Marx.
Of some importance are: -- The diaries of Fredrika Bremer
. As writer, reformer and champion of woman's rights, Bremer traveled to the United States in the 1850s.
It contained contributions by many prominent supporters of abolition, both American and European, among them Lowell, Emerson, Wendell Phillips, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Harriet Martineau, Giuseppi Mazzini, Nicholas Turgenev, and Fredrika Bremer
. ( <IR> See ALMANACS </IR> .)