Freight Flows

Freight Flows

 

indicators that characterize the freight volume by direction and sections of a transportation network, as well as among corresponding enterprises, points, or regions. Freight flows may be depicted by graphs or diagrams or in the form of so-called oblique tables, in which corresponding points and the freight volume between them are represented. As a rule, freight flows over individual sections of a network and in the “outbound” and “return” directions are not equal.

Within the USSR the largest freight flows occur on routes that connect the main mining, metallurgical, and lumber industry regions with the large processing-industry centers (for example, the Donbas and the Central Zone, the Kuznetsk Basin with the Urals). The direction of predominant freight flow (for example, from the Donbas to the Central Zone) is called the loaded direction, and the return direction is called the empty direction. In the USSR the amount of cargo shipped in the empty direction is about three-fifths of that shipped in the loaded direction. The inequality of freight flows along the outbound and return routes results in empty trips for rolling stock, unproductive trips by locomotives, ships, and motor vehicles, and an increase in the prime cost of shipping and capital outlays. Measures are being implemented to increase the freight volume sent in empty directions in order to moderate the inequality in freight flows; these include the use of reduced tariffs.

The size of freight flows is measured by the density of freight traffic. It depends on the production volume, the freight turnover associated with the volume, and the extent of the network. The average freight density on the railroads of the USSR is 18.5 million ton-kilometers per kilometer, which is three times higher than the average world freight density and five times that of the USA. A higher degree of use of transportation production capital and low prime cost generally accompany a high freight-traffic density. However, the task of providing continuous transportation operations and its maintenance is becoming a complex undertaking. Thus, because of the excessively high freight traffic densities on some transport routes, parallel routes are being constructed.

References in periodicals archive ?
Rail providers can capture opportunities to bundle and balance freight volumes from various customer sites but only if they directly manage freight flows between different end markets.
Last year, Trump administration tariffs against imports from Canada, Europe and China caused supply chain disruptions that distorted the magnitude and seasonal patterns of international freight flows. Demand peaked and troughed at unexpected times and the uncertainty had a tendency to inflate prices for transportation capacity, whether by ship, airplane, truck or rail.
Oresharski, as cited by the BGNES news agency, emphasized that the upgrade of Port Varna and Port Burgas was imperative if Bulgaria wanted to attract a part of the freight flows currently circumventing the country.
Forecasting freight flows is an integral part of transportation planning (Fischer et al.
The Editorial Board of the journal TRANSPORT apologize for the paper 'Modelling of freight flows that consist of multiple products transported by different modes of transport in a multimodal network produced by Aidas Vasilis Vasiliauskas and published in TRANSPORT, 2002, 17(5): 194-200, which upon a thorough investigation has been determined as nearly identical to the paper 'A multimode multiproduct network assignment model for strategic planning of freight flows' written by Jacques Guelat, Michael Florian and Teodor Gabriel Crainic and published in TRANSPORTATION SCIENCE, 1990, 24(1): 25-39 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/trsc.24.T25).
Many member states have indeed not waited for the European Commission to generalise use of computer technology (notably to improve control of freight flows).
Companies often look at customer or supplier opportunities for collaboration, but others have succeeded in establishing new relationships with organizations that have complementary freight flows.
Hear the views of industry experts on such current and developing issues as the operational climate, equipment availability, pressure on rates, global freight flows, constraints in US and international freight movements, impacts of security requirements, and the application of technology.
FreightWaves believes that additional, sudden freight flows into the United States are a short-term net positive for trucking carriers as shippers scramble to find space to house new inventory.

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