# Frequency Divider

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## frequency divider

[′frē·kwən·sē di‚vīd·ər]
(electronics)
A harmonic conversion transducer in which the frequency of the output signal is an integral submultiple of the input frequency. Also known as counting-down circuit.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Frequency Divider

an electronic device that reduces by an integral factor the frequency of periodic oscillations supplied to it. Frequency dividers are used in frequency synthesizers, in quartz-crystal and atomic clocks, in television apparatus (to synchronize scanning generators), and as timing devices in radar. Electronic counters, self-excited sine-wave generators, regenerative devices, self-excited oscillators with phase-locked frequency control, and relaxation generators are used to divide frequencies.

In a self-excited sine-wave generator, frequency division is achieved by synchronizing the generator’s frequency with a subharmonic oscillation of the frequency of the external periodic signal by means of the locking effect. In a regenerative frequency divider for sine waves, the periodic signal of frequency f, which is to be divided, and a signal of frequency (k - 1)·flk (where k is the scaling ratio), which is produced in the feedback circuit only when a voltage of the frequency being converted is fed to the input of the frequency divider, are fed to the frequency converter. The difference-frequency signal, equal tof/k, is obtained at the converter’s output. In apparatus consisting of a self-excited oscillator with phase-locked frequency control, a phase detector compares the frequency of a harmonic oscillation k times greater than the fundamental frequency of the oscillator with the divided frequency. An error voltage from the output of the phase detector, which is proportional to the difference between the frequencies being compared, is fed to the oscillator and varies its frequency until the divided frequency becomes exactly k times smaller. To divide the repetition rate of the pulse signals, relaxation generators are used as frequency dividers. These generators (multivibrators and blocking oscillators) operate in the periodic mode, with the pulse-repetition rate locked onto a subharmonic frequency, or in the driven mode, with a pulse-repetition period k times higher. In practice k does not exceed 10.

### REFERENCES

Frolkin, V. T. Impul’snye ustroistva, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Gonorovskii, I. S. Radiotekhnicheskie tsepi i signaly, part 2. Moscow, 1967.

IU. B. LIUBCHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
The top layer schematic of the system, as shown in Figure 2, consists of five modules: differential phase detector (DPD), digital filter (DF), biphasic clock source (B_CLO), controller (S_CON), and frequency divider (DVF).
In Figure 7 represents an equivalent linearized circuit of the channel for forming signals with a DDS as a reference oscillator of the PLL, in Figure 8, with the DDS as a frequency divider of the feedback loopof the PLL and in Figure 9--with the DDS as a support oscillator of the PLL.
However this drop of power is not considered as a problem, because the minimum power level is still in the range of power accepted for the frequency divider. The power difference in this case is more accentuated.
By applying my musical sense of circuit behavior, I was able to find regions on the manifold for which the Chua circuit behaved almost exactly as my chaotic frequency dividers had twenty-seven years earlier.
Main block of the frequency divider is a flip-flop.
Lin, "Programmable CMOS injection-locked frequency divider," Electron.
However, the most widely used approach to realize a divide-by-three frequency divider exploits a circuit nonlinearity to produce a second harmonic of the output voltage, as shown in Figure 1(c) .
P[N.sub.div]([t.sub.k]) = phase noise contribution from the frequency divider circuit at the sampling instance [t.sub.k]
An ILFD operates properly as a frequency divider only if the basic LC oscillator tracks the input signal, and this occurs over a limited range of frequency, called locking range (LR); its prediction is the main issue of investigation.
The [LO.sub.1] signal is generated from [LO.sub.2] by a frequency multiplier consisting of a frequency doubler (x2) and a frequency divider (/2) and a single-sideband (SSB) upconverter [19,20].
It consists of the following fundamental components (pieces): phase detector (FD), loop filter (NF), voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), and frequency divider (N).Afterwards the circuit synchronization the following condition is fulfilled [f.sub.r] = [f.sub.in], therefore the synthesizer output frequency is

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