Moreover, dense integration of multiple LC VCOs on a silicon die poses a new challenge due to mutual coupling between inductors and the resulting frequency pulling
and induced phase jitter among adjacent oscillators.
The frequency pulling
and the external quality factor were found to be 900 and 1930 kHz, respectively, whereas the frequency pushing for a maximum of 1 V was 125 kHz, that is approximately 0.0034 percent of the measured oscillation frequency.
A graphical representation of the frequency pulling
in a magnetron, along with frequency pushing, can be obtained from a Rieke diagram.
Stability is achieved using a high Q ceramic resonator in a low noise silicon FET circuit with the output buffered to minimize frequency pulling
. The frequency stability over the operating temperature range is better than [+ or -]10 ppm per [degrees]C.
Load frequency pulling
is reduced by decoupling the load with a low reactance capacitor in parallel with the load.
is 200 kHz into an SWR of 2 through all phases and frequency pushing is 20 kHz/V.
A high SWR or unstable load not only causes VCO frequency pulling
, but will also sometimes produce rapidly accelerated regions of the tuning curve (voltage-to-frequency transfer function).
is a measure of the frequency change due to a non-ideal load.
When frequency pulling
is significant enough to shift the VCO outside of its frequency range, a wide band VCO can more easily accommodate the correction to the frequency shift.
8) Frequency pushing [Hz/V] and frequency pulling
Therefore, twice the fundamental-frequency, twice the frequency range and low frequency pulling
can be obtained for millimeter-wave applications.
The model CFPV-2365 high frequency voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) is designed using bulk acoustic wave (BAW) crystal technology and delivers a good combination of frequency stability and voltage control (frequency pulling
) to conventional surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.