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symbol for the element franciumfrancium
[from France], radioactive chemical element; symbol Fr; at. no. 87; mass no. of most stable isotope 223; m.p. about 27°C; (estimated); b.p. 677°C; (estimated); sp. gr. unknown; valence +1.
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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The country code for France.
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frame relay

A high-speed packet switching protocol used in wide area networks (WANs). Providing a granular service of up to DS3 speed (45 Mbps), it has become popular for LAN to LAN connections across remote distances, and services are offered by most major carriers.

Frame relay (FR) is much faster than X.25, the first packet-switched WAN standard, because frame relay was designed for reliable circuits and performs less error detection (X.25 was never widely used in the U.S.). Frame relay does not process the packets; it relays them from the switch's input port to the output port, hence the name.

The FRAD (Frame Relay Access Device)
Attachment to a frame relay network is made via a FRAD on the customer's premises, which may be a separate device or software in the router. The FRAD connects to a switch port on the service provider's network via the User-to-Network Interface (UNI). All traffic for one customer generally travels over the same line, which is typically a multiple of 64 Kbps. Frame relay switches interconnect via point-to-point lines or an ATM backbone.

Permanent and Switched Circuits
Frame relay provides Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs). They are logical connections provisioned ahead of time (PVCs) or on demand (SVCs).

Connections are identified by a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) number that is significant only to the local FR switch, which changes the number as it passes the packet on to its destination. The receiving switch uses a different DLCI for its end of the same connection. Every DLCI requires a Committed Information Rate (CIR), which is a pledge on the part of the network to provide a certain amount of transmission capacity for the connection. CIRs are adjusted with experience.

Voice Over FR
Voice can be packetized to travel over a frame relay network, often providing significant cost savings with some sacrifice in voice quality, depending on network configuration. In 1998, the Frame Relay Forum finalized the Voice Over FR specification. FRF.11 defines the formats, and FRF.12 subdivides large frames in order to interleave real-time voice with data on slow connections.

A Superb Resource
"Frame Relay for High-Speed Networks" by Walter Goralski is must reading not only to learn about frame relay, but about wide area networking in general. Goralski factors in history, trends and related networking technologies. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999)

A Frame Relay Network
This illustration depicts the customer and service provider sides of a frame relay network. An ATM backbone is shown, because it is a common method of interconnecting FR switches. The FRAD may be a separate device (left side of illustration) or software built into the router (right).
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References in periodicals archive ?
As a consequence of the protracted delay in developing a procurement strategy and also as a result of a more realistic assessment of the technical challenges the Fres in-service date has slipped to between 2012 and 2014.
"I am aware that decisions need to be made sooner and am hopeful that the FRES and Warrior decision can be taken before the end of this calendar year."
The FRES family of vehicles will carry out a wide range of combat, combat support and combat service roles for the Army when they enter service.
Staff had been hoping they would win a new contract to build the Army's Future Rapid Effect System (FRES) vehicles and upgrading the Warrior combat vehicles and subsequent contracts.
Trevor Harrison, managing director of NDI, said: "The sheer scale and scope of FRES means there will be openings for companies involved in vehicle design and fitting, integration, manufacture, assembly, testing, training, maintenance and support."
FRES includes more details of this Code of Practice in Preparing Your CV, a useful free guide which helps you produce a CV which creates a lasting first impression.
BAE which employs around 600 people at its Newcastle plant recently said it was going to axe 217 of these posts, but later added that if it won the FRES contract,105 of these jobs would be saved.
A major conference was held at St James's Park yesterday, with more than 100 companies turning out to see how they can get a slice of the Ministry of Defence's pounds 16bn FRES military vehicle programme.
Workers at the former Vickers factory are thought to be in a good position to secure big contracts building the Army's Future Rapid Effect System (FRES) vehicles and upgrading the Warrior combat vehicles and subsequent contracts.
"It is vastly important we build on the excellent work we have done in the past and adapt for the likes of FRES."