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Related to Fricative: Voiced fricative


A primary type of speech sound of the major languages that is produced by a partial constriction along the vocal tract which results in turbulence; for example, the fricatives in English may be illustrated by the initial and final consonants in the words vase, this, faith, hash.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also continuant, spirant), any one of several obstruent consonants characterized by a turbulent sound resulting from the passage of air through a narrow stricture between incompletely closed articulatory speech organs. They differ acoustically from stops, in which the passage of air through the oral resonator is completely cut off, in that stops have a sharp on-glide and fricatives have a smooth, gradual on-glide.

Fricatives may be classified as central (nonlateral) and lateral. All Russian fricatives—[f], [s], [∫], [x] and the corresponding voiced consonants—are nonlateral fricatives, in which the air-stream passes through the center of the oral cavity. In lateral fricatives there is an obstruction in the center of the oral cavity, and the air passes around the sides; an example is the lateral [f] used in a number of Caucasian languages and American Indian languages. Fricatives with a nonlateral stricture are divided into groove fricatives, such as Russian and English [s], and slit fricatives, for example, English [θ] and Russian and English [f].

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Because Balochi has voiced fricative /z/ as simple coda in several words, there is no logical reason of nasalization as in a consequence coda position turns from unmarked to marked.
Examples of rhotic and non-rhotic realizations of /r/ Rhoticity learn (0: 16; 7: 01), world (1: 53), normal (fricative, 2: 04), for (trill, 2: 59), Birmingham (3: 39), matter (7: 54), better (12: 16, 15: 31), before (12: 23), their (13: 14), formal (18: 26), there (18: 48, 18:50) No rhoticity North (0: 17), Aberdonian (0: 41, 3: 25) Western (0: 48), Perth (2: 01), version (2: 03), for (2: 51), nerves (3: 39), certain (4:21) Orfir (4: 26), here (4: 34), hear (4: 36), other (5: 27), heard (6: 27, 8:31,8: 44), board (6: 33), German (7: 04), either (7: 26), nearly (9: 22), sure (11: 14), ordinary (12: 04), normal (16: 02, 16: 09), church (18: 31), there (18: 34), parliament (18: 54), part (18: 58)
/x/ Velar Fricative (Voiceless) as in the scot word loch and German auch
In the case of Ndebele the technology, religion and locations that came with English created the need for the Ndebele to express some concepts using inter-dental fricative phonemes.
Lipski (2008:204) mentions the use of a groove fricative variant instead of the alveolar trill in the Spanish of New Mexico but does not specify its geographical distribution or its frequency of use compared to that of other rhotic allophones.
Some fricative segments Ifi y v/ do not make consonant clusters word medially that is why the above table does not show examples of these three segments.
Five broad phonetic classes (vowel, glide, nasal, stop, and fricative sounds) were used to explore the effect of emotional "coloring" on different phoneme classes.
In Tlicho orthography, the letter I, commonly referred to as a "barred 1," denotes a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, the grave accent (as in Behchoko) indicates a low tone, while the ogonek (,) indicates that the vowel is nasalized (as used also in Polish orthography).