Friedrich List


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List, Friedrich

 

Born Aug. 6, 1789, in Reutlingen; died Nov. 30, 1846, in Kufstein. German economist, representative of the school of vulgar political economics, and spokesman for the interests of the German industrial bourgeoisie.

In 1817, List became professor of government at the University of Tübingen. He was a founder of a general association of German industrialists and merchants. His basic work is The National System of Political Economy (1841), in which political economy as a science was replaced by what he termed national economy, a system of recommendations on economic policy for the emerging German bourgeoisie. He developed the idea of “protectionism for infant industries,” which required the active intervention of the state in economic life, and attempted to develop a theory of productive forces, considering “educational capital” such as scientific discoveries and advances in craftsmanship to be a basic element in these forces and a major source of a nation’s wealth. List defended the chauvinist idea of German hegemony in Europe. He looked upon war as the “blessing of the nation.” Several of List’s ideas were later employed in Nazi geopolitics.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. Teorii pribavochnoi stoimosti (vol. 4 of Das Kapital), part 1, ch. 4.
Marx, K., and F. Engels. Soch., vol. 26, part 1.
Smit, M. N. Ocherki istorii burzhuaznoi politicheskoi ekonomii. Moscow, 1961.
Roll, E. A History of Economic Thought. London, 1956.
Roussakis, E. N. Friedrich List, the Zollverein and the Uniting of Europe. Bruges, 1968.

IU. A. VASIL’CHUK

References in periodicals archive ?
Mathew Carey, Alexander Hamilton, and Friedrich List fall into this group, as do historicists like J.
To be sure, historical figures dot these pages: Karl Marx, Adam Smith, Johann Sussmilch, Bernard de Mandeville, Friedrich List, David Hume, Joseph Schumpeter, even Polybius.
The author identifies three ideological strains that have "animated" Germany's movement toward National Socialism: 1) the mythological/intellectual, which rests on the myth-based arguments of Count Gobineau, Richard Wagner, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, and Alfred Rosenberg, according to which awareness of an assumed mythical past will contribute to present-day regeneration; 2) the biological, which applied Darwinian notions of struggle to society and races, provided the "scientific" basis for the belief in German superiority, and legitimized ruthless measures; and 3) the nationalist/conservative, emerging from Friedrich List and Freiherr vom Stein and which was articulated by Moeller van den Bruck and Carl Schmitt.
For guidance Lind nominates the nineteenth-century economist Friedrich List, whose enlightened economic nationalism rings true today.
John Stuart Mill first made this idea widespread, but the strongest 19th-century advocate of the "infant industry" critique of free trade was the German Friedrich List, an inspiration to such modern-day nationalists as Buchanan.
Among these was a German-born economist, Friedrich List, who emigrated to the U.S.
A few non-English mercantilists, a French physiocrat, and a couple of pro-tariff Americans are catalogued, but of them all only Friedrich List is assigned celebrity status.
Following the early observations of Friedrich List, historians have often and very convincingly explored the close interrelations between railways and nations, for the 'belated nations' Germany and Italy as well as for postcolonial Africa and Asia.
He has written a two-volume Life of Friederick Engels and a biography of the economist Friedrich List. A monograph on Germany's colonial empire would seem a natural extension of his work.
He draws on the writings of the early 19th-century German political economist Friedrich List, repeating the familiar litany of what's wrong with free-market, or "Anglo-American," economics.