Friedrich List


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List, Friedrich

 

Born Aug. 6, 1789, in Reutlingen; died Nov. 30, 1846, in Kufstein. German economist, representative of the school of vulgar political economics, and spokesman for the interests of the German industrial bourgeoisie.

In 1817, List became professor of government at the University of Tübingen. He was a founder of a general association of German industrialists and merchants. His basic work is The National System of Political Economy (1841), in which political economy as a science was replaced by what he termed national economy, a system of recommendations on economic policy for the emerging German bourgeoisie. He developed the idea of “protectionism for infant industries,” which required the active intervention of the state in economic life, and attempted to develop a theory of productive forces, considering “educational capital” such as scientific discoveries and advances in craftsmanship to be a basic element in these forces and a major source of a nation’s wealth. List defended the chauvinist idea of German hegemony in Europe. He looked upon war as the “blessing of the nation.” Several of List’s ideas were later employed in Nazi geopolitics.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. Teorii pribavochnoi stoimosti (vol. 4 of Das Kapital), part 1, ch. 4.
Marx, K., and F. Engels. Soch., vol. 26, part 1.
Smit, M. N. Ocherki istorii burzhuaznoi politicheskoi ekonomii. Moscow, 1961.
Roll, E. A History of Economic Thought. London, 1956.
Roussakis, E. N. Friedrich List, the Zollverein and the Uniting of Europe. Bruges, 1968.

IU. A. VASIL’CHUK

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True to the legacy of Friedrich List, the father of German economics, who wrote in 1841, "The power of producing wealth is therefore infinitely more important than wealth itself," Germany has retained its manufacturing edge through a relentless commitment to process innovation, backed by a network of research institutes.
How to reconcile the tension between the market and the state is the central concern of political economy today, just as it was for Adam Smith in the 18th century, Friedrich List and Karl Marx in the 19th century, and John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich von Hayek in their long debate on the topic through the middle decades of the 20th century.
How to reconcile the tension between the market and the state is the central concern of political economy today, just as it was for Adam Smith in the eighteenth century, Friedrich List and Karl Marx in the nineteenth century, and John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich von Hayek in their long debate on the topic through the middle decades of the twentieth century.
L'economiste et theoricien Friedrich List n'est que tres rarement evoque alors meme que certains historiens de l'economie le considerent comme le << precurseur de l'integration europeenne (32) >>.
The connecting tie that is often overlooked is Friedrich List, who sojourned in America between 1825 and 1830.
A Review of Contributions of Friedrich List Commemorating his 225-Year Anniversary.
The great, neglected German economist Friedrich List, a student of Hamilton's work, laid out an innovation roadmap for his own country in 1841, in his National System of Political Economy.
In the subsequent chapters, Hascher describes the growing field of expertise, oppositional viewpoints, the role of pressure groups from the early railway age and the founding father of transport and traffic science, Friedrich List.
Reinert mentions German economist, Friedrich List (1789-1846) in this regard: "Although German economist Friedrich List(1789-1846) is hardly mentioned in today's economics textbooks, his economic principles not only industrialized Continental Europe in the nineteenth century, but also facilitated European integration from the early 1950s until, and including, the successful integration of Spain and Portugal into the EU in 1986.
Mathew Carey, Alexander Hamilton, and Friedrich List fall into this group, as do historicists like J.