Friedrich Schleiermacher


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Schleiermacher, Friedrich

 

Born Nov. 21, 1768, in Breslau; died Feb. 12, 1834, in Berlin. German Protestant theologian and philosopher. Member of the Pietistic Herrnhut communal movement.

Schleiermacher studied at the University of Halle. He became a preacher in 1794 and served in Berlin from 1796 to 1802. He was a professor at the University of Halle from 1804 to 1806. Returning to Berlin in 1807, Schleiermacher became a professor at the University of Berlin in 1810, and he was made secretary of the philosophy section of the Academy of Sciences in 1814. In the early 1800’s he was close to the circle of Jena romantics, and in his Confidential Writings About Schlegel’s “Lucinde” (1800) he defended F. von Schlegel’s novel Lucinde for its depiction of feeling based on total inner freedom. In the rhapsodically enthusiastic On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultural Despisers (1799) and Soliloquies (1800), Schleiermacher presented an integrated religious and aesthetic ideology in a spirit of early romanticism; personal inner experience was posited as the basis of religion, which Schleiermacher defined as “contemplation of the universe,” later as a feeling of “absolute dependence” on the eternal. He subsequently published a series of systematic works on philosophy (Dialectics, 1804), ethics, and Protestant dogmatics. Schleiermacher produced a classic translation of Plato into German.

Schleiermacher’s psychologism, his belief in the preeminent role of inner feeling in knowledge and in the inscrutability of the highest source (god) for reason, in which regard he was influenced by Pietism and F. H. Jacobi, were sharply criticized by Hegel. Schleiermacher had a great influence on liberal Protestantism of the 19th century and on the development of philosophical hermeneutics and of the history of philosophy and pedagogy in Germany.

WORKS

Sämtliche Werke, vols. 1–30. Berlin, 1835–64.
Ästhetik. Edited by R. Odebrecht. Leipzig-Berlin, 1931.
Hermeneutik, 2nd ed. Edited by H. Kimmerle. Heidelberg, 1974.
In Russian translation:
Rechi o religii k obrazovannym liudiam, ee preziraiushchim. Monologi. Moscow, 1911.

REFERENCES

Ornatskii, F. Uchenie Shleiermakhera o religii. Kiev, 1884.
Haym, R. Romanticheskaia shkoIa. Moscow, 1891. (Translated from German.)
Dilthey, W. Leben Schleiermachers, vols. 1–2. Berlin, 1922.
Odebrecht, R. Schleiermachers System der Ästhetik. Berlin, 1932.
Kantzenbach, F. W. F. D. E. Schleiermacher in Sebstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten. Reinbek, 1967.
Redeker, M. Friedrich Schleiermacher: Leben und Werke. Berlin, 1968.

AL. V. MIKHAILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
(2) In his 1813 lecture "Uber die verschiedenen Methoden des Ubersetzens" ("On the Different Methods of Translating"), Friedrich Schleiermacher proposed an ideal of translation that affords the reader "the fullest possible unadulterated enjoyment of foreign works," which "can be achieved through a method that insists on breathing into the translated work the spirit of a language foreign to it." (3) Taking a slightly different tack, one of the most important German Shakespeare translators of the nineteenth century, August Wilhelm Schlegel, was less interested in confronting the reader with an experience of the foreign than in enriching German language and literature through translation.
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) gave an account of the Christian faith and its relation to natural science that required none of the indeterminacy that contemporary theologians judge essential, says Pedersen.
The authors invoke Friedrich Schleiermacher to describe Coyne, Richard Dawkins, and others as contemporary "cultured despisers of religion." They urge the adoption of a more intuitive sense of awe in the face of the cosmos, a sense which naturally undergirds a scientific curiosity.
"Introduction." Friedrich Schleiermacher, Hermeneutics: The Handwritten Manuscripts.
Platon (1957), Apologie, in: Platon, Samtliche Werke, Band 1, ubersetzt von Friedrich Schleiermacher, hrsg.
In Chapter 5 of Occasional Thoughts on Universities in the German Sense (1808) Friedrich Schleiermacher registers the common complaint against the "crudeness" of university customs especially the disorderly mode of life of students--an indictment that critics countered through the use of the term "academic freedom." Schleiermacher was writing before the founding of the University of Berlin in 1809 by the Prussian liberal politician Wilhelm von Humboldt.
Then I recalled Friedrich Schleiermacher s definition of conscience:
Here he distinguishes two evolutionary lines: the first following Friedrich Schleiermacher's translation of Plato's works and the hermeneutical readings he proposes where he points out the importance of the dramatic features in dialogue; the second line is a "philosophy of tragedy", in Peter Szondi's words, which culminates in Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy.
Nesse sentido, de acordo com Prasad (2002), Friedrich Schleiermacher pode ser considerado o 'pai da hermeneutica moderna', ao oferecer a visao da hermeneutica como teoria geral da interpretacao textual e da compreensao.
Friedrich Schleiermacher, a Prussian philosopher that came into his own at the turn of the 18th century, is chiefly known for his theology.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, however, figures such as August Ernesti (note that the name of the main character in the novel, Ernesto, differs by only one letter), Friedrich Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Dilthey transformed hermeneutics into the basis of a general methodology of textual interpretation for the humanities.
Though a few scholars have noted a similarity between the work of Browning and the Christian hermeneuticists Friedrich Schleiermacher and Jowett, (4) I am going to argue for a much more pervasive link between Browning, the dramatic monologue, and contemporary Christian hermeneutics.