The learning of song patterns by birds, with special reference to the song of the chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs
. Ibis 100:535-570.
The eight most common forest bird species were Levaillant's green woodpecker Picus vaillantii (26 pairs), European Robin Erithacus rubecula (41 pairs), Common Blackbird Turdus merula (50.5 pairs), Great Tit Parus major (76 pairs), (Ultramarine) Blue Tit Parus caeruleus (ultramarinus) (29.5 pairs), Short-toed Tree creeper Certhia brachydactyla (32 pairs), Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius (21 pairs), and Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
In Scotland, isolates obtained during 1998-2000 from dead birds--Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris), and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs
)--previously identified as E.
The chaffinch (fringilla coelebs
) is the UK's second commonest breeding bird Picture/SUE TRANTER
Likewise, the levels of average heterozygosity were low ([H.sub.E] = 0.025 [+ or -] 0.013, n = 14; Table 1), and all measures of intrapopulational variation were well below levels observed in the closely related chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs
; P = 24.5 [+ or -] 1.5, [H.sub.E] = 0.048 [+ or -] 0.002, n = 12 populations; Baker 1992) and other passerines (P = 24.2 [+ or -] 1.3, [H.sub.E] = 0.063 [+ or -] 0.005, n = 61 species/subspecies; Evans 1987).
(2) Pulp consumers (tits, Parus spp.; and Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs
) peck the fruit without detaching it from the peduncle or, after plucking, tear off the pulp while holding the fruit in the bill or against the perch.
([dagger]) <5 birds were available from the following species: chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs
) 4 samples, wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) 4, icterine warbler (Hippolais icterina) 4, reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) 3, siskin (Carduelis spinus) 3, red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva) 2, trush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) 2, chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita) 2, willow tit (Parus montanus) 1, wryneck (Jynx torquilla) 1, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) 1, tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) 1, blackbird (Turdus merula) 1, grasshopper warbler (Locustella naevia) 1, rustic bunting (Emberiza rustica) 1, scarlet rosefinch (Car codacus erythrinus) 1, and fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) 1.
Morphometric variability in continental and island populations of chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs
Genetic and morphometric divergence in ancestral European and descendent New Zealand populations of chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs
Genetic and morphometric divergence in ancestral European and descendant New Zealand populations of chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs
of Locality birds songs song types Azores Islands Flores 41 962 90 Graciosa 39 687 79 Pico 35 695 62 Terceira 31 826 62 Sao Miguel 40 916 91 Madeira Islands Madeira 31 486 75 Canary Islands La Palma 18 380 72 Hierro 27 829 102 Gomera 32 584 53 Tenerife 28 529 113 Gran Canaria 25 575 50 Morocco Agadir 37 863 93 Rabat 38 810 114 Iberia Sevilla 31 659 41 Setubal 33 1217 52 Segovia 32 886 26 The purpose of this paper is to describe patterns of cultural differentiation within and among regions in Atlantic island and continental populations of chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs
), and to make inferences concerning the forces that led to these patterns.
In this study, I will analyze the amount and dimensionality of growth trajectories in early ontogeny in three species of finches: the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs
), the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris), and the scarlet rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus).