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an administrative region in northeastern Italy, in the Carnic and Julian Alps, partly on the Friuli Plain near the Gulf of Venice of the Adriatic Sea. Includes the provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, Udine, and Pordenone. Area, 7,800 sq km. Population, 12,325,000 (1973). The principal city is Trieste.
The economy of Friuli–Venezia Giulia is industrial and agrarian. More than 45 percent of the economically active population is employed in industry, and more than 10 percent in agriculture. Fluorite is mined in the Udine region, and lead-zinc ores are extracted in the province of Udine. Enterprises of the ferrous metallurgy industry are found in the cities of Trieste and Udine. Machine building is also important, especially shipbuilding, for the most part in Monfalcone and Trieste, and the production of ship engines, at Trieste. Artificial and synthetic fibers are manufactured in Gorizia, Monfalcone, and Torviscosa. The region also has enterprises of the electrical engineering, pulp, oil-refining, woodworking, textile, and food-processing industries. The production of electric power amounted to 4.1 billion kW-hrs in 1972, two-thirds of which was from steam power plants and the remainder from hydroelectric power plants.
In all, 28.3 percent of the land suitable for agriculture is occupied by ploughed areas, while 16.2 percent is used for meadows and pastures and 4 percent is occupied by orchards and vineyards. Lumbering is practiced; more than one-fourth of the region is covered with forests. The major crops are wheat (1973 harvest, 110,000 tons), maize (495,000 tons), sugarbeets, and potatoes. The region is also a center for viticulture and wine-making (1.5 million gal). Peaches, apples, and pears are grown in orchards, and silk is cultivated. Livestock amounts to 221,000 head of cattle and 88,000 head of swine.
The principal port is Trieste, one of the largest on the Mediter-ranean Sea.
T. A. GALKINA