Frozen Ground Surveying

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Frozen Ground Surveying


the set of field and indoor jobs involved in studying the principles governing the formation and development of seasonally and permanently frozen ground and its characteristics, which depend on geological-geographic conditions and human productive activity. Frozen ground surveying is based on the key landscape method, the essence of which is choosing landscapes with typical (key) sections where regularities and characteristics of frozen ground are studied. The data obtained from the sections apply to the entire area of a certain landscape. Frozen ground surveying involves the use of a set of geological, geomorphological, geobotanical, hydrogeo-logical, geological engineering, climatic, and special frozen ground methods and aerial photography. Predicting changes in frozen ground conditions that will occur because of economic development of the area is a necessary part of frozen ground surveying. Depending on the purpose, the frozen ground survey may be small-scale (1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000), medium-scale (1:200,000–1:100,000), large-scale (1:50,000 and 1:25,000), or detailed (1:10,000 and larger).

As a result of frozen ground surveying, reports and frozen ground maps with sections are prepared. The frozen ground survey is used as the basis for geological engineering and hydrogeological studies in areas where permafrost is found.


Polevye geokriologicheskie (merzlotnye) issledovaniia. Moscow, 1961.
Instruktsiia po proizvodstvu kompleksnoi merzlotno-gidrogeologicheskoi i inzhenerno-geologicheskoi s’emki masshtabov 1:200,000 i 1:500,000. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.