Fruit Abscission

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Abscission, Fruit


the separation of fruit from a branch caused by the formation of a separation layer of cells on the fruit stalk. It is also associated with the depletion of auxins by the fruit. The substance bonding the cells of the separation layer dissolves, and the cells separate from each other. At this stage of the process, the fruit is attached to the plant only by a vascular bundle. The wind and the force of gravity cause this bond to break, and the fruit falls. A fruit abscises soon after it sets. This is primarily because the plant cannot provide all of the developing fruits with the necessary amount of nutritive substances, and, as a result, those fruits that do not receive sufficient nourishment fall.

The premature abscission of fruit is often observed. The fruit abscises during infructescence and during the development of the germ. Premature abscission occurs as a result of damage by insects (primarily larvae of the codling moth) or by disease, low temperature, drought, and other unfavorable conditions. The principal method of combatting premature falling is the observance of a whole group of agricultural measures. Apple and pear trees should be sprayed with a weak auxin solution to delay the formation of the separation layer. To prevent the mass falling of cotton settings, the top of the main shoot is broken off and the branches growing on the lower part of the shrub are removed.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In general, fruit abscission percentage remained low during shelf life observations of all treatments (Figure 1C and Figure 1D), this research confirmed the low fruit abscission on 'Calypso' and higher rates of fruit abscission on 'MG 302' previously identified by SEGATTO et al.
Objectives:To investigate the causes and remedies of premature fruit drop of wax apple and the findings of this study will help to increase the fruit yield by reducing the bud and premature fruit abscission. Results:It was observed that plant growth regulators, hydrogen peroxide and phloemic stress improved the fruit retention and improved the quality of fruits.G[A.sub.3] 50 and 20 mg/L treatment during flowering reduced the bud and fruit drop of wax apple.
Nitrogen deficiency stress enhanced the production of ethylene (Lege et al., 1997), increase the content of inhibitors like abscisic acid in the leaves and decreased the auxins content (Anisimov and Bulatova, 1982) leading to fruit abscission at the reproductive stage (Zhao and Oosterhuis, 2000) so that senescence started at early growth stages.
Satoh, "Changes in distribution of cell wall polysaccharides in floral and fruit abscission zones during fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)," Journal of Plant Research, vol.
Influence of growth regulator treatments on dry matter production, fruit abscission and 14C-assimilate partitioning in citrus.
This technology was used to optimize germination of avocado genotypes inflicted by precocious fruit abscission (Sanchez-Romero et al.
[8.] Ojehomon OO Fruit Abscission in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
Ethylene stimulates flower and fruit abscission (separation from plant) and flower opening.
In addition, Ethrel[R] promotes fruit abscission (also called slipping) in cantaloupes and accelerates blackberry ripening and loosening.