Fruiting Body


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fruiting body

[′früd·iŋ ‚bäd·ē]
(botany)
A specialized, spore-producing organ.

Fruiting Body

 

the receptacle of sporebearing organs found in most ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The fruiting body is formed by the interweaving of the hyphae of the mycelium and usually constitutes a visible part of the fungus. Only in truffles and a few other fungi is the entire body, including the fruiting body, hidden in the soil. The shape, size, consistency, and color of fruiting bodies vary widely and are considered as morphological characteristics in the taxonomy of fungi.

The following three types of fruiting bodies are distinguished in Ascomycetes: the cleistothecium, the perithecium, and the apothecium. The cleistothecia are rounded and closed and have a peridium (outer envelope). There are no special openings, and the asci develop the fruiting body either randomly or in bundles. The spores, or ascospores, are released from the fruiting body after the decay (in Plectascales) or rupture (in Erysiphaceae) of the peridium. Perithecia, which are pitcher-shaped, oval, or spherical, have a narrow opening at the top. Apothecia are saucer-shaped or cup-shaped. Less frequently they resemble little cushions or caps on a stalk (for example, in morels). The asci are distributed on the upper side of the apothecia in the form of a hymenium.

In many Ascomycetes the fruiting bodies are immersed in a thick matting of hyphae, known as the stroma, which varies in shape, size, and color. In Basidiomycetes, the fruiting bodies may be laminate, procumbent on the substrate (resupinate forms), hoof-shaped (agarics), club-shaped, branching (Clavaria), umbrella-shaped, in the form of caps on a stalk (Hymeno-mycetes), spherical, or pear-shaped (puffballs).

In certain other fungi, one distinguishes gymnocarpous fruiting bodies, which have an open hymenium; hemiangiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are semiclosed; and angiocarpous fruiting bodies, which are completely closed. Spores, or basidiospores, develop in definite places on the surface of the fruiting body (for example, the laminae of Russula and Lactarius deliciosus; in the tubules of cepes) or within the fruiting body (for example, in puffballs).

Some fungi have no fruiting bodies. These include lower fungi (Phycomycetes), some Ascomycetes (such as yeasts), some Basidiomycetes (Ustilaginales, Uredinales), and all Fungi Imperfecti. Sometimes fruiting bodies are incorrectly called pycnidia, which are actually the spore carriers of Sphaeropsidales of the order Fungi Imperfecti.

M. A. LITVINOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Additionally, it can be stated here that the antioxidant potential of the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions of GL mycelium and fruiting body in terms of TPC, TFC, and FRAP potential might be ascribed to the presence of numerous semipolar compounds in them.
In detail, we observe the sampling site of Evora region (Alentejo, Portugal), showing the surrounding vegetation of Quercus suber, Cistus ladanifer and a sample of the fruiting body collected at this local.
harzianum mutanase was induced by (1 [right arrow] 3)-[alpha]-D-glucans isolated from the mycelium and fruiting body of C.
Diameter of the fruiting body ranged from 3.5 to 9.5 cm.
The adhering substrate particles were removed manually and the fruiting body collected in baskets for further data collection.
As shown in Fig 2, eleven elements were detected and are distributed within the fruiting body. These elements include Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si, Ti and Mn.
However, there is an obvious lack of free water in the bottom left comer of the image, in an area directly adjacent to the third fungal fruiting body. Figure 9c shows an image obtained in Plane 1 of the bottom of Side B of the board, again displaying the moisture-abundant fruiting bodies present.
When mycelia covered the entire bottle surface and proliferated to the bottom of the bottle, fruiting body development was stimulated by exposure light for 12 h a day at 85% of humidity and 20-25[degrees]C.
The search for the constituents reducing [alpha]-glucosidase activity led to the finding of active compounds in the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum.
Minimum number of days showed that the fewer days are required for the fruiting body to for harvesting.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean mushroom; spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi.
Truffles are the fruiting body of a particular group of fungi.