Friesland

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Friesland

(frēz`lənd, Du. frēs`länt) or

Frisia

(frĭzh`ə), province (1994 pop. 607,000), c.1,325 sq mi (3,430 sq km), N Netherlands. LeeuwardenLeeuwarden
, Frisian Ljouwert, city (1994 est. pop. 87,500), capital of Friesland prov., N Netherlands. It is the center of an agricultural and dairying region and has a noted cattle market. Manufactures include food products, clothing, artificial silk, and tin.
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 is the capital. The province includes several of the West Frisian Islands along the North Sea coast and borders on the IJsselmeer in the southwest. A principal dairying and cattle-raising region, Friesland has fertile land near the coast and sandy heath and fenland in the interior. It is drained by numerous canals and small rivers and has many picturesque lakes. The Frisians, a Germanic people who lived in formerly isolated marshlands, were conquered by the Franks in the 8th cent. Their language, which differs considerably from Dutch, is still spoken by a sizable part of the population. In the early Middle Ages, Friesland extended from the Scheldt River in the south to the Weser in the east. Later it was partly conquered by the counts of HollandHolland,
former county of the Holy Roman Empire and, from 1579 to 1795, chief member of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Its name is popularly applied to the entire Netherlands. Holland has been divided since 1840 into two provinces, North Holland and South Holland.
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. When Holland passed (1433) to the house of Burgundy, the authority of the Burgundian dukes was not recognized by the independence-minded Frisians. In 1498, Emperor Maximilian I bestowed all Friesland on Duke Albert of Saxony. Albert was unable to establish his authority, and in 1515 his son, for a payment, restored Friesland to Maximilian. Maximilian's grandson, Emperor Charles V, reduced the province by force in 1523. Friesland joined (1579) in the Union of Utrecht against Spanish domination, but it continued to appoint its own stadtholders until 1748, when Prince William IV of Orange became the sole and hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces of the Netherlands. A nature preserve for seals has been established on the island of Terschelling.

Friesland

 

a historical region on the North Sea. Initially the term “Friesland” was used to designate the entire territory populated by Frisians; however, individual territories were gradually lost. In the west the region of Kennemerland was lost, and in the 11th century it became part of the county of Holland. In 1287 the counts of Holland acquired West Friesland, the territory to the west of the Zuider Zee basically corresponding to the modern province of North Holland.

Central Friesland, or Friesland proper, remained independent until the early 16th century. It also retained its unique sociopolitical structure. Characteristics of feudal structure were weakly expressed; most of the peasantry remained free and lived in autonomous rural communes, and there was no central power. Friesland proper was constantly subjected to the aggression of its neighbors. In the early 16th century the power of the Hapsburgs was consolidated, and in 1524, Friesland proper became a seigniory in the Netherlands holdings of the Hapsburgs. In the 16th century, during the Netherlands bourgeois revolution, it became a part of the Republic of the United Provinces. Friesland proper now constitutes the province of Friesland in The Netherlands.

East Friesland, the region to the east of the Ems River, was an independent county ruled by the House of Kirksen from 1454 until 1744, when it was captured by Prussia. At present the territory of East Friesland is located within the Land of Lower Saxony, Federal Republic of Germany. Its principal city is Emden.


Friesland

 

a province in The Netherlands, on the North Sea. Area, 3,400 sq km. Population, 553,700 (1975). The capital is the city of Leeuwarden. Friesland is an important region for the raising of dairy livestock, and sheep are raised on the coast and on the islands. Agricultural products are processed. The province produces ceramics, ships, radio equipment, and instruments.

Friesland

1. a province of the N Netherlands, on the IJsselmeer and the North Sea: includes four of the West Frisian Islands; flat, with sand dunes and fens (under reclamation), canals, and lakes. Capital: Leeuwarden. Pop.: 640 000 (2003 est.). Area: 3319 sq. km (1294 sq. miles)
2. an area comprising the province of Friesland in the Netherlands along with the regions of East Friesland and North Friesland in Germany