Fuero


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Fuero

 

in the medieval states of the Iberian Peninsula:

(1) A corpus of general law relating to all the subjects of a kingdom. The first code of this type was the Lex Visigothorum, which came to be known in the 13th century as the Fuero Juzgo.

(2) A charter of feudal liberties granted to a particular province, class, or family.

(3) A municipal charter. This type of charter, the most common fuero, was usually granted in the name of the king and set forth the rights, privileges, and obligations of the inhabitants of an urban or rural community.

The development and proliferation of municipal fueros, which were particularly numerous from the 11th to 13th centuries, was associated with the Reconquest. As lands were won back from the Arabs, it became necessary to provide for their military defense and to develop their economies. The crown was compelled to provide incentives in order to attract settlers. In the early period of the Reconquest, municipal fueros merely fixed the location and boundaries of settlements; later, they defined the status of the settlers, made official the settlers’ exemption from corvée, and established rates of taxation. They also granted a measure of autonomy that included the right to elect a magistrate, freedom from seignorial jurisdiction, and the right to maintain a militia.

The fuero also defined the rights of the seignior over a particular community. The seignior could alter the fuero only with the approval of all the settlement’s inhabitants. Almost every city and the adjacent rural communities, hamlets, and villages had their own fueros. The cities jealously defended from encroachment by the crown the privileges granted under the fueros; alliances of cities, known as hermandades, were formed for this purpose.

Until the 14th century fueros of all types were the basic form of legislation in the states of the Iberian Peninsula. In the 14th and 15th centuries local fueros were of equal standing with royal codes of law; they were affirmed by the king, and new fueros were introduced. As the state government became centralized and royal power increased, the fueros lost much of their force. With the unification of Spain, they became nugatory.

The fueros are extremely important sources for the socioeconomic, political, and military history of medieval Spain.

I. S. PICHUGINA

References in periodicals archive ?
(11) The Fuero Real starts privileging the Church over the nobles and, not surprisingly, it's rejected by the latter who petition for, and are granted, a return to the Fuero Viejo and its judgments based on costumbreand hazanas.
Esto ha difundido la nocion de que el fuero legislativo es una licencia para delinquir, aunque en sus origenes fue un legitimo recurso para proteger a diputados y senadores "por las opiniones que manifiesten en el desempeno de sus cargos", segun el articulo 61 de la Constitucion mexicana, y de ninguna manera constituye un "blindaje legal" para los acusados de cometer actos de corrupcion y otros delitos comunes.
For Johnson the fuero militar is critical if a series of broader issues are to be understood, of which Cuba's ongoing and intense loyalty to the Crown is most important.
Del total de presuntos delincuentes registrados en los juzgados del fuero comun en el pais, 79.4% de ellos era menor de 40 anos de edad, mientras que en Baja California ese porcentaje resulto de 84.7% (INEGI, 2000).
Y es que, senala, no se trata de solo eliminar el fuero sino de hacerlo salvaguardando la funcion publica tal como lo alertara el constitucionalista Diego Valades, quien manifesto que la reforma constitucional tal como fue enviada por la Camara de Diputados a la Camara Alta "no contribuira a combatir la impunidad, sino a disminuir la gobernabilidad del pais".
Pasados 10 dias del arranque de la campana presidencial, y con Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador como puntero en las encuestas, en la Camara de Diputados de manera sorpresiva se decidio "discutir" la eliminacion del fuero del presidente de la Republica.
En tal sentido, esto puede corroborarse en la citada disposicion 50 del fuero de Najera, donde se afirma que:
El presidente Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador pidio a los legisladores en el Congreso de la Union a aprobar las reformas para la revocacion de mandato, consulta popular y eliminacion del fuero a los servidores publicos.
Rapidamente Alfonso VI dio fuero al nucleo principal, a sus territorios y lugares que dependian de el.
En 2007 la PGR lo exonero de cualquier imputacion que se le hizo en el marco de las investigaciones respecto al Pemexgate, que incluyo una multa por mil millones de pesos al PRI, por lo que algunos medios resaltaron que el fuero del que gozaba como legislador le permitio salir impune de este escandalo.
Esto es muy visible en el arranque de los capitulos dedicados a la prehistoria, la romanizacion, la formacion de los reinos cristianos o la genesis cultural del Fuero como constitucion territorial donde lo que interesa contar es como la cultura vasca ha interpretado tradicionalmente estos mismos momentos.