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see FujianFujian
or Fukien
, province (2010 pop. 36,894,216), c.48,000 sq mi (124,352 sq km), SE China, on Taiwan Strait. The capital is Fuzhou. The climate is warm and very moist, the terrain mostly hilly or mountainous.
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, China.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a province in East China, located primarily along the coast of the East China Sea and the Formosa Strait. Much of Fukien lies in the basin of the Min Chiang. The highest elevation is 2,158 m at Wui Shan. Area, 120,000 sq km. Population, 17.5 million (1975). The capital is Fuchou.

Agriculture, especially land cultivation, is the mainstay of Fukien’s economy. The cultivated areas, which make up more than 12 percent of the province, are primarily concentrated in the coastal lowlands and the river valleys; there are terraced fields on the mountain slopes. More than 70 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated. Food crops are harvested twice a year (three times a year in the south). The principal food crops are rice and sweet potatoes; industrial crops include sugarcane, tobacco, peanuts, and sasanqua. Many tropical fruits are grown, including longans, litchis, bananas, and various citrus fruits. Fukien is one of China’s most important tea-producing regions. Livestock and silkworms are raised. Other important agricultural products are the bark of the camphor tree, the fruit of the Japanese varnish tree, and bamboo. The province is one of the chief fishing regions of China.

Iron ore, coal, manganese ore, and alumina are mined in Fukien. Salt is extracted from seawater.

Fukien’s manufacturing industry makes primarily paper, wood products, silk fabrics, and food products, such as tea and sugar. The province also has machine-building plants and enterprises of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. Cottage industries produce lacquer ware, and articles made of bamboo. The cities of Fuchou and Amoy (Hsiamen) account for much of Fukien’s industry. Fuchou has shipbuilding, woodworking, and tea-processing enterprises, and Amoy has metalworking and food-processing enterprises. Other major industrial cities are Nanp’ing, Changchou, and Ch’üanchou.

The Min Chiang is navigable. Fuchou and Nan’ping are Fukien’s most important river ports; Amoy is the most important seaport.


The region that is now Fukien was settled in ancient times by various non-Chinese tribes. In the third and second centuries B.C. it formed part of the Min-yüeh state. Chinese rulers did not conquer the region until the beginning of the Common Era. Between the seventh and tenth centuries Chinese settled in the region in considerable numbers and gradually absorbed the native population. Under the T’ang Dynasty, which ruled from the seventh to ninth centuries, the region was, given the name “Fukien.”

In the second half of the 17th century Fukien was one of the areas of popular resistance to China’s Manchu conquerors. Late in the same century it was made a province by the Manchu Ch’ing Dynasty. The Nanking Treaty of 1842 opened the ports of Amoy and Fuchou to foreign trade. A large-scale anti-Ch’ing popular uprising led by secret societies took place in Fukien in 1853. By the late 19th century the province was part of the Japanese sphere of influence.

In 1929 and 1930 soviet regions were established in western and northern Fukien (seeSOVIETS IN CHINA). In November 1933 the Nineteenth Kuomintang Army mutinied in Fukien against the government of Chiang Kai-shek, but the revolt was suppressed early the next year. From 1937 to 1945 the province’s coastal regions were occupied by the Japanese. The People’s Liberation Army of China freed Fukien from Kuomintang forces betweeen August and October 1949.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Fukien
1. a province of SE China: mountainous and forested, drained chiefly by the Min River; noted for the production of flower-scented teas. Capital: Fuzhou. Pop.: 34 880 000 (2003 est.). Area: 123 000 sq. km (47 970 sq. miles)
2. any of the Chinese dialects of this province
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Gladys Harman, MS 380815/1/1: "A History of Mission Medical Work in Changchow Fukien, China II": A Letter from Gladys Busby, 18 February 1987.
The evidence is based on the writings of participants and later imperial histories Table 3 China's population by province, 1819-1953 (million) 1819 1893 1953 Provinces most affected by 153.9 101.8 145.3 Taiping rebellion (a) Provinces affected by Muslim 41.3 26.8 43.1 rebellions (b) Ten Other Provinces of China 175.6 240.9 338.6 Proper (c) Three Manchurian Provinces (d) 2.0 5.4 41.7 Sinkiang, Mongolia, Tibet, 6.4 11.8 14.0 Ningsia, Tsinghai Total 379.4 386.7 582.7 (a.) Anhwei, Chekiang, Hupei, Kiangsi, Kiangsu; (b.) Kansu, Shensi, Shansi; (c.) Fukien, Honan, Hopei, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Kweichow, Shantung, Szechwan and Yunnan; (d.) Heilungkiang, Kirin, Liaoning.
On one occasion, the Portuguese encountered the brother of the Feudatory Prince of Fukien, and it was not clear which party had precedence.
In spite of the heavy financial burden, Mother Stephanie met with the provincial of the Dominican Fathers and agreed to send sisters to support the work of the Dominican priests at their mission in Fukien, China.
The crab, originally from Fukien province in China, has been found in the Tyne between the estuary and Newburn and has also moved north to the Blyth area.
In 1683, the Ch'ing dynasty ruling mainland China annexed the island to its empire, incorporating it into the province of Fukien. (110) In 1886 the island of Formosa (Taiwan) formally became a province of China.
The two Taiwanese groups speak Minnan and Hakka; two dialects spoken by people in southern Fukien and eastern Kwangtung in China.
* The Archives of the Council for World Mission, 1775-1940 (Zug, Switzerland), incorporating the archives of the London Missionary Society, selected sub-series including Committee Minutes, Candidates Papers, Home, China General, Fukien, South China, North China, and Central China;
Occasionally, the rules could not resolve incidents such as the encounter between the Portuguese and the brother of the Feudatory Prince of Fukien on the imperial canals, where it was not clear which party had precedence.
Its southern border is 3 degrees South between South Sumatra and Kalimantan (Karimata Straits); its northern border is the Strait of Taiwan from the northern tip of Taiwan to the Fujian (Fukien) coast of China.
The Chinese started to come in to the coastal areas at the beginning of the seventeenth century, to escape the effects of famine in nearby Fukien Province.