Fukuzawa Yukichi

Also found in: Wikipedia.
Fukuzawa Yukichi
BirthplaceNakacheu, Osaka, Japan

Fukuzawa Yukichi


Born Dec. 12, 1834, in Osaka; died Feb. 3, 1901, in Tokyo. Japanese thinker; ideologist of the liberal bourgeoisie in the last third of the 19th century.

Fukuzawa was born into a samurai family of moderate means. He began to study European sciences in 1854, first in Nagasaki and later in Osaka; in 1857 he became director of a boarding school in Osaka. In 1858 he moved to Edo (now Tokyo) and opened a “school of Western sciences,” which in 1868 became the Keio Gijuku, or school of Keio (named after the period of the reign of Emperor Komei, 1865–67), and eventually, in 1890, became Keio University.

From 1860 to 1867, Fukuzawa was in the service of the sho-gunate. He made three official visits to the USA and Europe (including Russia) in 1860–61, 1861–63, and 1867, after which he left government service altogether. In 1879, Fukuzawa became the first president of the Tokyo Academy of Sciences (Academy of Sciences of Japan). In 1882 he founded the daily newspaper Jiji Shimpo, in which his own writings appeared almost daily until his death. He was regarded as the ideological mentor of Kaishinto, a reform party founded in 1882 and headed by Okuma Shigenobu. Fukuzawa also had contacts with Korean reformers.

As an ideologist of bourgeois individualism, Fukuzawa attacked feudalism and its vestiges and defended individual freedom; he regarded equality as the natural state of individuals as well as nations, holding that inequality depends on the level of scientific and cultural achievement. An adherent of English utilitarianism, he subscribed to the cult of the “energetic personality”; he spoke out in favor of the people’s “rights” in harmonious coexistence with the rights of the state. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, Fukuzawa justified Japanese aggression.

Fukuzawa greatly influenced social thought in his time and was one of the ideologists of the bourgeois reformation in Japan.


Zenshu, vols. 1–21. Tokyo, 1958–64. (Complete collected works.)
The Autobiography. Tokyo, 1954.


Sovremennye iaponskie mysliteli. Moscow, 1958. Pages 72–92. (Translated from Japanese.)


Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
It covers from the time Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901), the founder of Keio Gijuku University in Tokyo and Japan's leading intellectual, invited the first American Unitarian missionary to Japan until the mission was closed.
My analysis will particularly focus on the emergent notion of race in the works of Japanese enlightenment scholar Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901) and the biometric inscription of racial knowledge in early 20th-century Japan.
It was Fukuzawa Yukichi, the father of the Japanese Enlightenment, who first drew the attention of policymakers and intellectuals to the importance of international exhibitions through his travelogues from Europe.
Por ultimo, o quarto grupo e o da historia civilizatoria ou historia de abertura, tendo como expoente maximo Fukuzawa Yukichi.
The seminal Japanese thinker Fukuzawa Yukichi put it simply: "A hundred volumes of international law are no match for a few cannon.
When she cast of hir smok, war's a game doesn't amount to Hannah Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834-1901)--remember Christ our Savior was born, and she lives in our alley the woods are full of them.
It is worth recalling that Fukuzawa Yukichi, one of the leaders of Japan's modernization in the late nineteenth century advocated datsu-a nyu-o, asking Japan to disassociate itself from Asia and enter the West.
His translations included versions of Der Kampf ums Recht (Quanli jingzheng lun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [The Struggle for Law]) by Rudolf von Jhering (1818-1982), Shiyong jiaoyuxue [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Practical Pedagogy, source unknown), and Discourse on Associations between Men and Women (Japanese/Chinese title: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by Fukuzawa Yukichi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1835-1901), and textbooks on history and education, all published by Wenming Shuju [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Civilization Press).
Notably, one of the younger members of that first Japanese delegation was Fukuzawa Yukichi, the founder of this university.
Fukuzawa as a Western and Japanese Thinker: The Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi.
Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901), generally known as the foremost Japanese advocate of Westernization, wrote in 1875:
The liberal newspaper Jiji Shimpo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Current events), founded in 1882 by Fukuzawa Yukichi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1835-1901), got word of Inoue's plan and strongly opposed it, insisting that Japan's sovereignty never be compromised for the sake of treaty revision.