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A hole, usually found in volcanic areas, from which vapors or gases escape.



a small vent or fissure from which hot gases issue. The gases may include H2O, HCl, HF, SO2, CO2, CO, H2S, and H2. If the gases are emitted from magma, the vent is called a primary fumarole; if they are emitted from lava flows or pyroclastics that have not yet solidified, the vent is referred to as a secondary, or rootless, fumarole.

Fumaroles may be located in the crater, on the slopes, or at the foot of a volcano. The gases are emitted under pressure, frequently resulting in a loud hissing or roaring. As the temperature decreases, the water vapor undergoes a transformation to the liquid state. Depending on thermodynamic conditions, certain gases emitted along with the water vapor are dissolved in the liquid water, as are various gases and substances that are produced as a result of reactions with the wall rock and that are encountered on the way to the earth’s surface. In this way, hydrothermal solutions form hot springs in the vicinity of active volcanoes.

The deposition of sublimates of halides, sulfates, native sulfur, and other minerals is associated with fumaroles.


References in periodicals archive ?
Hydrated silica identified by the spectrometer in uphill locations-confirmed by stereo imaging-has indicated that hot springs or fumaroles fed by underground heating created these deposits.
2008) Mineralogy of fumarole deposits at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Northern Arizona, Rocks & Minerals, 83, 534-544.
Loppi S, Bonini I (2000) Lichens and mosses as biomonitors of the trace elements in areas with thermal springs and fumarole activity (Mt.
Travel further round to the south to Fumarole and experience a sauna - nature's way.
Bernal's response to this question hurled his thick, scholarly and occasionally unreadable tomes into the fumarole of the culture wars.
He covers briefly but expertly such divers subjects and areas as science in the Arctic and Antarctic; South Georgia Island and Wrangel Island; Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost active volcano (where Rowell, the expert mountaineer and adventurer, rapelled 85 feet down into an ice-flanked fumarole, traveling "instantly from 30[degrees]F below zero to 30[degrees]F above zero" [p.
2011: UV camera measurements of fumarole field degassing (La Fossa crater, Vulcano Island).
This milky gray lake is actually a flooded fumarole and the second-largest hot spring in the world.
Nereidas fumarole, La Gruta creek and Hotel Termales show an acid setting.
in September 2001 from a 400[degrees]C fumarole on the rim of the La Fossa crater on the island of Vulcano, Aeolian archipelago, Sicily, Italy (latitude 38[degrees]23' N, longitude 14[degrees]58' E).
35) took us to the nearby Fumarole beach where even in the early season you can have a sandbath, prepared by Franco.