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A hole, usually found in volcanic areas, from which vapors or gases escape.



a small vent or fissure from which hot gases issue. The gases may include H2O, HCl, HF, SO2, CO2, CO, H2S, and H2. If the gases are emitted from magma, the vent is called a primary fumarole; if they are emitted from lava flows or pyroclastics that have not yet solidified, the vent is referred to as a secondary, or rootless, fumarole.

Fumaroles may be located in the crater, on the slopes, or at the foot of a volcano. The gases are emitted under pressure, frequently resulting in a loud hissing or roaring. As the temperature decreases, the water vapor undergoes a transformation to the liquid state. Depending on thermodynamic conditions, certain gases emitted along with the water vapor are dissolved in the liquid water, as are various gases and substances that are produced as a result of reactions with the wall rock and that are encountered on the way to the earth’s surface. In this way, hydrothermal solutions form hot springs in the vicinity of active volcanoes.

The deposition of sublimates of halides, sulfates, native sulfur, and other minerals is associated with fumaroles.


References in periodicals archive ?
Vulcan, which a local guide says emits smoke from its small fumaroles at the summit.
Eruptions, earthquakes, mud pools, fumaroles and spouting geysers are all part of daily Icelandic life.
These licenses occur in prospective regions of Peru's Western and Eastern Cordillera that include geologically recent volcanism and occurrences of thermal springs and fumaroles.
The Great Rift Valley, running from Middle East to Mozambique (through Ethiopia, North & South Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi) has a great potential for geothermal energy, particularly in East Africa, where geothermal manifestations such as hot springs, fumaroles and geysers are prevalent.
At the summit there are fumaroles filling the air with sulphur smells.
Typology of chemical composition is quite broad, resulting hydrogeological conceptual models of several nature (Cruz, 2007), namely (Figure 1): (i) NaCl thermal springs from the basal aquifer; (ii) thermal springs, boiling pools, fumaroles and cold CO2-rich springs associated to hydrothermal systems.
While Mawenzi and Shira are considered to be extinct, there is still activity deep within Kibo and fumaroles seen from below attest to the possibility that--after perhaps 200,000 years--it could once again one day erupt.
The island features an active hydrothermal system located only four miles away from the town of Akutan and includes more than 10 hot springs and considerable fumaroles, which are natural openings in the earth's crust that emit steam and gas.
Its shores are once again thick with forest, and signs of geothermal activity persist: Geysers and fumaroles dot the western shore, gas bubbles rise to the surface in several parts of the lake, and warm water occurs in numerous locations.
The Afar people have adapted to gather water for themselves and their goats from natural fumaroles, or steam vents.
As long as the volcano is expelling fumaroles, there is no danger; it would be dangerous if it were blocked.
That is evidence of prior hydrothermal activity, perhaps akin to hot springs or fumaroles - features that, at Yellowstone National Park for instance, teem with organisms.