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Related to Fumigant: methyl bromide


A chemical compound which acts in the gaseous state to destroy insects and their larvae and other pests; examples are dichlorethyl ether, p-dichlorobenzene, and ethylene oxide.



a toxic substance used in the gaseous or vapor state to destroy harmful insects and causative agents of plant diseases. Fumigants constitute a class of pesticides.

One of the most commonly used fumigants is methyl bromide, which is used to kill soil-borne insects and agricultural pests (rate of application, 26–60 g/m3; permissible vapor concentration in a work area, 1 mg/cm3). Other common fumigants include 1,2-dichloroethane, which is employed for soil fumigation against insects of the Phylloxeridae family (800–1,200 kg per hectare [ha]); Nemagon, which is used for fumigation against soil insects (200–300 kg/ha); and D-D Mixture, which is a preparation consisting of dichloropropanes (500–1,000 liters/ha) and is also used for soil fumigation. Hydrocyanic acid, another widely used fumi-gant, is prepared in gaseous form at the fumigation site from such salts as sodium cyanide and tsianplav (a mixture of calcium cyanide and sodium cyanide); it is used to control populations of susliks (120–150 g/ha) and to fumigate tea bushes, citrus trees (under tents), planting stock, and mills, including groats mills (100–125 g/m3). Flies and other flying insects in closed areas are destroyed with aerosol insecticides.

Gas masks and other protective devices are used when working with fumigants. Since many fumigants are explosive and flammable, some of them—such as dichloroethane and carbon disulfide—are mixed with fire-extinguishing chemicals; for example, carbon tetrachloride is added to dichloroethane. Moreover, possible sources of combustion and explosion are removed; electric welding, the striking of matches, and the lighting of fires are forbidden in the area being fumigated. Rubber hoses are used for decanting flammable liquids.


Mel’nikov, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiia pestitsidov. Moscow, 1974.
Spravochnik po pestitsidam. Edited by L. I. Medved’. Kiev, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
The presence of protective MITC levels in metam sodium-treated timbers 7 years after treatment was surprising, because this treatment is considered to provide the shortest protective period of any fumigant treatment (Morrell and Corden 1986).
Their studies confirmed that good agricultural practices are critical factors in determining how much fumigant is released into the atmosphere.
50] values obtained for the essential oils (Table 1) also confirmed the high fumigant toxicity of the two oils (Fig.
But VHP remains officially unregistered by the EPA as an anti-anthrax fumigant, Sgroi notes.
MIDAS is a broad spectrum soil fumigant developed by Arysta LifeScience to control a variety of soil-borne diseases, nematodes, and weed seeds that threaten high value crops, including strawberries.
The benefits of cylinderized phosphine fumigant technologies offer the market a critical tool for driving improvements in insect management practice as well as compliance with ever increasing safety and environmental regulations.
However, many countries in Europe have disallowed the use of fumigant products, and the state of California is likely to restrict their use even more over the next few years.
Data from three field trials conducted near Parlier, above, show that totally impermeable film (TIF) maintained higher fumigant concentrations under tarp and in the soil than polyethylene film.
Water repellent alone and fumigant treatments gave unsatisfactory performance over the long term.
In the caladium trial, they found no significant differences among methyl bromide, Paladin, and Midas in terms of total weeds, "rogue" or off-variety plants produced, or in total hours of labor for weeding, but yields were dependent on the combination of fumigant and cultivar.
EPA presented the award to Arysta for bringing the fumigant MIDAS to market which does not deplete the ozone layer and has been proven in commercial fields to be as effective as methyl bromide at lower use rates.
With the phasing-out of methyl bromide, the most common and effective soil fumigant, and the increasing tolerance of soil-borne pests to other synthetic soil fumigants, mustard plants may find a place in the vegetable crop rotation.