fundamental group


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fundamental group

[¦fən·də¦ment·əl ′grüp]
(communications)
In wire communications, a group of trunks that connect each local or trunk switching center to a trunk switching center of higher rank on which it homes; the term also applies to groups that interconnect zone centers.
(mathematics)
For a topological space, the group of homotopy classes of all closed paths about a point in the space; this group yields information about the number and type of “holes” in a surface.
References in classic literature ?
But then New York, as far back as the mind of man could travel, had been divided into the two great fundamental groups of the Mingotts and Mansons and all their clan, who cared about eating and clothes and money, and the Archer-Newland- van-der-Luyden tribe, who were devoted to travel, horticulture and the best fiction, and looked down on the grosser forms of pleasure.
Then in [10], they found the fundamental group of neutrosophic quadruple [H.sub.v]-groups and proved that it is a neutrosphic quadruple group.
Citing Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Catura said: 'The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State'
The motivation of this paper is the L-space conjecture of Boyer, Gordon and Watson [BGW] which states that an irreducible rational homology 3-sphere is an L-space if and only if its fundamental group is not left-orderable.
In her opening speech, Executive Director of the Doha International Family Institute Noor al Malki al Jehani said:"DIFI is committed to its ambitious research program in supporting family policy-making in Qatar specifically and in the Arab world in general." She referred to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which considers that family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Noor al-Malki al-Jehani, executive director of the Doha International Family Institute, stressed that "DIFI is committed to its ambitious research programme in supporting family policy-making in Qatar specifically and in the Arab world in general." Al-Jehani also referred to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which considers that the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the state.
Abu-Saleem, "Folding on the wedge sum of graphs and their fundamental group," APPS.
First of all, the reasons behind the creation of ISIS [Islamic State in Iraq and Syria] must be identified so that the eradication of this fundamental group will be successfully achieved.
Let f : X [right arrow] X be a self-map with X a wedge of circles or a compact surface with boundary, so that the fundamental group of X is finitely generated and free.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the family as the natural and fundamental group unit of society that is entitled to protection by society and the State.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares that the "family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State." (10) The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Convention on Human Rights echo this language.
IT says in Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State".

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