These two distinctive "phases" within the funerary rite
would have held different symbolic meaning and significance, and therefore require clear differentiation when being discussed and interpreted (see Quinn et al.
In his analysis of the violence and disorder governing matanga in contemporary Kinshasa, De Boeck not only observes an increasing role for youth in the practical organization of funerals and the associated violent behaviour, he also writes that the funerary rites
are 'ludic happeningjs] as well': 'Matanga invariably also offer occasions for laughter, amusement, flirting and excitement' (2009: 56).
The results of these researches have not been yet published, but on the basis of preliminary reports one can note that the funerary rite
and installations were similar to those in the necropolises in Hop and Taul Cornii.
The evidence for protracted liminal funerary rites
derives primarily from the variation in the articulations among skeletal elements and the degree of flexion observed among skeletons found in primary burials.
Her detailed historical contextualizing of funerary rites
demonstrates how important individual artists and ritualists were in actually creating a funeral culture in Thailand in the nineteenth century.
Discussing the funeral rites of the Mewahang Rai, however, Gaenszle himself, drawing on the work of Bloch and Parry, notes that such funerary rites
often abound with symbols of fertility and the regeneration of life.
These same traditions that nurtured Mandela as a child also served as the basis of his funerary rites
to facilitate his return to the spirit world, the ancestors.
Instead, Park argues, "the Christian principle of burial has been culturally intensified by deep-rooted Confucian burial practice, and, in fact, many elements of Confucian funerary rites
have been assimilated into Christian rituals" (p.
This vulnerability is expressed in twenty-first century America not only in the way the theme of death is avoided, but also in the way funerary rites
have come to be performed.
A discussion of the war's casualties and funerary rites
makes up the final section of this chapter.
It is surpassingly strange that a concept revived by Islamists as a political tool may now be serving a similar purpose in the United States, where sharia is no more likely to affect the American way of life than the burial rituals of the ancient Egyptians are likely to influence our funerary rites
In each of the chapters, Aberth follows a similar pattern: he addresses epidemiological issues (cause, transmission, symptoms, mortality); then moves to demographic, social, and political impact; followed by a discussion of cultural reaction, whether manifested in art, funerary rites
, or the social construction of diseased persons as "unclean" or "perverse" or in some other way targets of exclusion.