mycosis

(redirected from Fungus infection)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
Related to Fungus infection: fungal diseases

fungal infection

fungal infection, infection caused by a fungus (see Fungi), some affecting animals, others plants.

Fungal Infections of Human and Animals

Many fungal infections, or mycoses, of humans and animals affect only the outer layers of skin, and although they are sometimes difficult to cure, they are not considered dangerous. Athlete's foot and ringworm are among the common superficial fungal infections. Fungal infections of the mucous membranes are caused primarily by Candida albicans (see candidiasis). It usually affects the mouth (see thrush) and the vaginal and anal regions.

The fungi that affect the deeper layers of skin and internal organs are capable of causing serious, often fatal illness. Sporotrichosis is an infection of farmers, horticulturists, and others who come into contact with plants or mud. The disease affects the skin and lymphatic system and, in rare cases, becomes disseminated. Blastomycosis is caused by a yeastlike fungus that reproduces by budding. The North American variety, caused by Blastomycosis dermatitidis, occurs more often in men and seems to be limited to the central and E United States and Canada. Wartlike lesions appear most often on the skin, sometimes spreading to the bones and other organs. The South American variety of blastomycosis is caused by B. brasiliensis. Chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is a deadly fungal skin infection in amphibians, which it kills by damaging to the animals' normally permeable skin, thus disrupting the transport of air and moisture.

Among the fungi that infect the deeper tissues is Coccidioides immitis, which causes coccidioidomycosis, sometimes called valley fever, a lung infection that is prevalent in the SW United States. Cryptococcosis is another fungus disease that may be localized in the lung or disseminated, especially to the central nervous system. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting men twice as often as women. The causative agent (Cryptococcus neoformans) has been isolated in pigeon excretions. Histoplasmosis, which is caused by spores of the fungal genus Histoplasma, is a severe infection that shows varied symptoms. In acute cases ulcers of the pharynx and enlargement of the liver and spleen are present. In other forms tubercularlike lesions of the lung occur. In its benign form no symptoms may be present.

Fungal infections sometimes follow the use of antibiotics, which kill nonpathogenic as well as pathogenic bacteria, thereby providing a free field in the body for fungal invasion. Opportunistic fungal infection occurs when a fungus enters a compromised host, as in the case of such diseases as AIDS. Treatment for fungal infections includes systemic antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole, and agents usually used topically, such as clotrimazole (Lotrimin) and miconazole (Monistat).

Fungal Infections of Plants

Serious damage is done to crops each year by fungal infections of plants such as smuts, rusts, ergots, and mildews. Dutch elm disease, a disease that has seriously depleted the number of elm trees in the United States, is caused by the fungus Ceratostomella ulmi. Such diseases are usually fought with fungicides or by developing resistant plants. See also diseases of plants.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

mycosis

[mī′kō·səs]
(medicine)
An infection with or a disease caused by a fungus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The concentration of CRP in patients infected by G- bacteria was much higher than that of G + bacterial infection and fungus infection groups, and the G+ bacterial infection also had higher concentrations than the fungus infection group.
"This approval offers additional alternatives when choosing medications to treat nail fungus infections," says Gary Buehler, director of the agency's office of generic drugs.
Chytrid fungus infection related to unusual mortalities of Salamandra salamandra and Bufo bufo in the Penalara Natural Park (Central Spain).
Fungi are often picked up on changing room floors and when conditions are warm and moist can shelter under the nail's tip and get a firm hold,especially if nails are damaged,immunity is low or you already have another fungus infection, like athlete's foot.
A fungus infection can cause oral thrush, leaving the tongue covered in white patches.
Grape plants produce resveratrol as a natural defense mechanism against fungus infection. But not all grape plants will produce the protective substance.
Only 17% of their trainers reported cases of onychomycosis (nail fungus infection).
A SOUNDS like a fungus infection, although it could be a patch of psoriasis.
As the story goes, a piece of cheese was left in a cave and a few weeks later was found to have acquired a tart, pungently fragrant character from the fungus infection. Today, only cheeses from around these caves can use the name Roquefort.
Athlete's foot is a term used to describe what really is a form of fungus infection of the feet.
Photo: Lower half of oak canopy is discolored by fungus infection