Participle

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participle

Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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Participle

 

a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Although there are several factors to be taken into account, such as the fact that the corpus consists of both prose and poetry, we can say that the results presented in Table 5 more or less correspond to the semantic observations made earlier on: with verbs of state, the constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with perfect participle are at the top, while for verbs of movement the constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle are.
My corpus contains about fifty examples of clitic pronouns accompanying the following constructions: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present, perfect and aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist and perfect participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and perfect participle.
The constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle form the transition to the third group: the former because it is quite infrequent (with only five instances in the corpus) and the latter because it is almost always ambiguous.
As I noted above, however, the prototype model is not incompatible with diachronic considerations, which I have made with regard to the generalisation of the constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present participle.

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