antibody

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antibody,

protein produced by the immune system (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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, viruses, or other cells or proteins. Such antigens are capable of inflicting damage by chemically combining with natural substances in the body and disrupting the body's processes. The body contains hundreds of thousands of different white blood cells called B lymphocytes, each capable of producing one type of antibody and each bearing sites on its membrane that will bind with a specific antigen. When such a binding occurs, it triggers the B lymphocyte to reproduce itself, forming a cloneclone,
group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically identical.
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 that manufactures vast amounts of its antibody.

The antibody molecule is composed of four polypeptide chains (see peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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)—two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains—joined by disulfide bridges. The light chains have a variable portion that is different in each type of antibody and is the active portion of the molecule that binds with the specific antigen. Antibodies combine with some antigens, such as bacterial toxins, and neutralize their effect; they remove other substances from circulation in body fluids; they bind certain antigens together, a process known as agglutination; and they activate complement, blood serum proteins that cause the destruction of invading cells.

See also monoclonal antibodymonoclonal antibody,
an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by fusing a normally short-lived, antibody-producing B cell (see immunity) to a fast-growing cell, such as
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.

Antibody

A protein found principally in blood serum and characterized by a specific reactivity with the corresponding antigen. Antibodies are important in resistance against disease, in allergy, and in blood transfusions, and can be utilized in laboratory tests for the detection of antigens or the estimation of immune status.

Antibodies are normally absent at birth unless derived passively from the mother through the placenta or colostrum. In time, certain antibodies appear in response to environmental antigens. Antibodies are also induced by artificial immunization with vaccines or following natural infections. The resulting antibody level declines over a period of months, but rapidly increases following renewed contact with specific antigen, even after a lapse of years. This is known as an anamnestic or booster response. See Allergy, Blood groups, Hypersensitivity, Isoantigen, Vaccination

Antibody reactivity results in precipitation of soluble antigens, agglutination of particulate antigens, increased phagocytosis of bacteria, neutralization of toxins, and dissolution of bacterial or other cells specifically sensitive to their action; the antibodies so revealed are termed precipitins, agglutinins, opsonins, antitoxins, and lysins. One antibody may give many such reactions, depending on conditions, so these classifications are not unique or exclusive.

Three principal groups (IgG, IgM, IgA) and two minor groups (IgD, IgE) of antibodies are recognized. These all form part of the wider classification of immunoglobulins. Antibody diversity is generated by amino acid substitutions that result in unique antigen-binding structures. See Cellular Immunology, Immunoglobulin

The development of the technology for producing monoclonal antibodies, which can bind to specific sites on target antigens, revolutionized the uses of antibodies in biology and medicine. Unfortunately, almost all monoclonal antibodies originate in mice, and the murine immunoglobulin serves as an antigen, frequently acting immunogenic in human recipients. See Antigen, Monoclonal antibodies

antibody

[′an·tə‚bäd·ē]
(immunology)
A protein, found principally in blood serum, originating either normally or in response to an antigen and characterized by a specific reactivity with its complementary antigen. Also known as immune body.

antibody

any of various proteins produced in the blood in response to the presence of an antigen. By becoming attached to antigens on infectious organisms antibodies can render them harmless or cause them to be destroyed
References in periodicals archive ?
It was speculated that the titer of GADA was originally low in group B patients (i.e., positive GADA-RIA and negative GADA-ELISA), which is in accordance with the results of a previous report [6].
T1DM patients had higher frequency of GADA as 27(67.5%) of them showed GADA positive in comparison to 15(25%) in T2DM, 6(15%) in relatives of T1DM, 7(11.6%) in relatives of T2DM and none in both control groups.
GADA levels were analyzed in the serum of epileptic patients who had been admitted to the Epilepsy Center at Bakirkoy Psychiatry Neurology, Neurosurgery Research and Training Hospital, from June 2010 to June 2012.
Analysis of serum autoantibodies revealed that 9 out of 22 cases exhibited lower titres of autoantibodies against one or more autoantigens, including 5 cases positive for GADA, 2 for IA-2A, 3 for ZnT8A.
We found that reduced global H3 acetylation existed in [CD4.sup.+] T lymphocytes from LADA patients and the reduced H3 acetylation lever was associated with GADA titer.
While the state leaders Rahul organised the brainstorming session in Mathura as PM Modi had addressed a rally there on completion of one year of his government The meet was called to work out strategy for 2017 Assembly polls in UP Former Union minister Jitin Prasada floated the idea of reservations based on economic criteria Rahul pepped up party workers, saying that PM Modi was helping them by targeting the Grand Old Party Congressmen gifted Rahul a gada , a sudarshan chakra and an idol of Lord Krishna.
Mr and Mrs Gada have now appealed to David Cameron to overturn the Home Office's decision but he has so far refused to do so.
Following the completion of the deal, Gada Turkey will become a subsidiary of Terumo BCT Europe NV.
According to Gada, it's an interesting and different way to attract audiences of all age groups.
Autoantibody Autoantigen ICA The ICA autoantigens are not well defined but include a sialoglycoconjugate and glutamic acid decarboxylase (34) 1AA Insulin (proinsulin antibodies have also been demonstrated) GADA Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 > GAD67) 1A-2A A protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) ZnT8A Zinc transporter-8 that transports zinc into insulin secretory granules ICA = lslet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies; IAA = Insulin autoantibodies; GADA = Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies; 1A-2A = Insulinoma associated-2 autoantibodies; ZnT8A = Zinc trasnporter-8 autoantibodies Table 1.
Physical Infrastructure and Rural Water Development Jimy Wongo, Agriculture and Forestry Jacob Lupai, Animal Resources and Fisheries Gada James Killa, Health, Sanitation and Environment Ija Baya, Education and Technology Hastin Yokwe, Gender and Social Development Mary Apayi Ayiga, Labour and Public Service Lily Kitale Andrew, Corporative and Rural Development Michael John, Youth, Sports and CultureDavid Lokonga Moses (incumbent) , Local Government Gerald Francis replaces (replacing Albert Pitia).
Meanwhile, a Taliban spokesman, Qari Yousaf Ahmadi, claimed that an Afghan soldier, named Naqibullah, opened fire on foreign forces in Gada base killing six of them.