(redirected from GALNS)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.


in physics, one of the three commonly recognized states of matter, the other two being solid and liquid. A substance in the gaseous state has neither definite shape nor definite volume. Like liquids, gases are fluids and assume the shape of their containers. Unlike liquids, they will expand to fill any container, regardless of its size. All gases condense into liquids or solids when sufficiently cooled or compressed (see compressioncompression,
external stress applied to an object or substance, tending to cause a decrease in volume (see pressure). Gases can be compressed easily, solids and liquids to a very small degree if at all.
..... Click the link for more information.
; condensationcondensation,
in physics, change of a substance from the gaseous (vapor) to the liquid state (see states of matter). Condensation is the reverse of vaporization, or change from liquid to gas.
..... Click the link for more information.
; liquefactionliquefaction,
change of a substance from the solid or the gaseous state to the liquid state. Since the different states of matter correspond to different amounts of energy of the molecules making up the substance, energy in the form of heat must either be supplied to a substance
..... Click the link for more information.
). Most gases first liquefy, but some pass directly into the solid state (see sublimationsublimation
, change of a solid substance directly to a vapor without first passing through the liquid state. The term is also used to describe the reverse process of the gas changing directly to the solid again upon cooling.
..... Click the link for more information.
); carbon dioxide, for example, can condense into dry ice. Some gases are extremely soluble in certain liquids, the liquid absorbing many times its own volume of gas. Some solids, by a process called adsorption, can take up many times their own volume of certain gases. The behavior of gases under various conditions of pressure, temperature, and volume is described by the various gas lawsgas laws,
physical laws describing the behavior of a gas under various conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature. Experimental results indicate that all real gases behave in approximately the same manner, having their volume reduced by about the same proportion of the
..... Click the link for more information.
. Many of the properties of gases can be understood by considering the fact that only a small part of the volume of a gas is occupied by its atoms or molecules, which are in rapid, random motion. See kinetic-molecular theory of gaseskinetic-molecular theory of gases,
physical theory that explains the behavior of gases on the basis of the following assumptions: (1) Any gas is composed of a very large number of very tiny particles called molecules; (2) The molecules are very far apart compared to their sizes,
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


A state of matter, including natural gas and propane, used as a fuel to produce energy, generally for lighting and heating.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


To expose to a war gas.
A phase of matter in which the substance expands readily to fill any containing vessel; characterized by relatively low density.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. a substance in a physical state in which it does not resist change of shape and will expand indefinitely to fill any container. If very high pressure is applied a gas may become liquid or solid, otherwise its density tends towards that of the condensed phase
2. any substance that is gaseous at room temperature and atmospheric pressure
3. any gaseous substance that is above its critical temperature and therefore not liquefiable by pressure alone
a. a fossil fuel in the form of a gas, used as a source of domestic and industrial heat
b. (as modifier): a gas cooker
5. a gaseous anaesthetic, such as nitrous oxide
6. the usual US, Canadian, and New Zealand word for petrol, a shortened form of gasoline
7. US an informal name for flatus
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


A smart contracts and electronic payment system introduced in 2015. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum is a blockchain-based distributed ledger; however, Ethereum's purpose is to provide a platform for third parties to develop decentralized applications (dApps) that are secure and verifiable. People use the Ethereum code to create their own assets in the form of digital tokens, which can be fixed or fluctuate, and payments are made in Ether (ETH) digital currency. Bitcoin confirmations take minutes but Ethereum takes only seconds, and fees are based on "Gas," which is the amount of time spent validating the transactions.

2018 - A Roller Coaster Ride
Like Bitcoin, 2018 was the year cryptocurrency values dropped precipitously. Ethereum's price started the year at USD $1,400 and ended at $117.

Ethereum Classic (ETC)
Due to a hacking event that stole USD $50M in Ether from an Ethereum-based venture capital project known as "The DAO," Ethereum was split into Ethereum Hard Fork and Ethereum Classic in 2016. Ethereum Hard Fork (ETH) started with a revised blockchain and returned the stolen funds to the DAO token holders. Ethereum Classic (ETC) continued to use the old blockchain, and the two are not compatible. As of 2020, one ETH is considerably more valuable than one ETC. See Wei, proof of work algorithm, blockchain, GUSD and Bitcoin.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mutation and polymorphism spectrum of the GALNS gene in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A).
The analytical range in the activity measurements, defined as the ratio (assay response for the QC HIGH)/(blank activity) (8), was 909, 580, 102, 243, 740, and 757 for GALNS, NAGLU, ARSB, I2S, GUSB, andTPP1, respectively.
For example, the analytical range of the LC-MS/MS assay for GALNS of 909 was 360-fold higher than the value of approximately 2-3 reported for the fluorometric assay using DBS and the 4-methylumbelliferone substrate (32, 33).
[4] Nonstandard abbreviations: LSD, lysosomal storage disorders; DBS, dried blood spots; MS/MS, tandem mass spectrometry; TPP1, tripeptidyl peptidase 1; NAGLU, [alpha]-N-acetylglucosaminidase; GUSB, lysosomal [beta]-glucuronidase; IUDA, [alpha]-iduronidase; MPSs, mucopolysaccharidoses; I2S, iduronate-2-sulfatase; GALNS, N-acetylgalactosamine- 6sulfatase; ARSB, N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase; LINCL, infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; ESI, electrospray ionization; LC, liquid chromatography; P, product; IS, internal standard; S, substrate; MRM, multiple reaction monitoring.
El ADN viral se amplifico empleando cebadores especificos para el ADNc de GALNS, los cuales reconocen secuencias ubicadas en los exones 10 (TOMF23) y 12 (TOMF34R), evitando interferencia del ADN genomico.
La cotransfeccion con AAVSUMF1 en una relacion 1:1 produjo un incremento en la actividad GALNS de 2,4 veces (p<0,01), con respecto a las celulas transfectadas sin CMVSUMF1 (figura 4A).
Como se observo en HEK293, la cotransfeccion con AAV-SUMF1 en una relacion 1:1 llevo a un incremento de 1,6 veces en la actividad GALNS, lo que permitio alcanzar el 60% de la actividad enzimatica normal (8,05 [+ o -] 0,69 U/mg vs.
Assay-optimization experiments revealed a maximum GALNS activity at pH 4.0 in formate buffer (see Fig.
Use of the GALNS assay with liquid-phase extraction demonstrated that the enzyme activity in DBSs from 9 MPS-IVA patients (range, 0.0019-0.018 [micro]mol x [h.sup.-1] x [L.sup.-1] blood; mean, 0.0096 [micro]mol x [h.sup.-1] x [L.sup.-1] blood) was well below the range of activities in blood samples obtained from 30 healthy newborns (range, 0.109-0.550 [micro]mol x [h.sup.-1] x [L.sup.-1] blood; mean, 0.279 [micro]mol x [h.sup.-1] x [L.sup.-1] blood) (Fig.
[4] Nonstandard abbreviations: MPS-IVA, mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA; GALNS, N-acetylgalactosamlne-6-sulfate sulfatase; ESI-MS/MS, electrospray ionization--tandem mass spectrometry; DBS, dried blood spot; GALNS-S, GALNS substrate; GALNS-IS, GALNS internal standard; GALNS-P, GALNS product.
It is a major milestone in the GALNS programme to have 176 patients randomised and dosed at 31 sites in 17 countries worldwide.
This Phase 3 trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GALNS in patients with MPS IVA.