HDR

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HDR

(1) (High Data Rate) A CDMA 3G technology. See Qualcomm HDR.

(2) (High Dynamic Range for photos) See HDR for photos.

(3) (High Dynamic Range for TV) A high dynamic range for display screens that generates more intense colors by producing blacker blacks and whiter whites. HDR is achieved by techniques within various TV brands or with TVs that support any of the HDR encoding standards added to the content.

In the TV
OLED TVs are known for their high contrast ratio; however, backlight techniques employed on LED/LCD TVs also create a high dynamic range. For example, a common method is "local dimming," in which the light is reduced to the dark pixels in real time. See OLED, LED TV and Dolby HDR.

Added to the Content
HDR10, Dolby Vision and HLG are HDR encoding methods that are added to the video format. The effects are rendered on TVs that support one or more of the standards.

HDR10
HDR10 is part of the Ultra HD 4K Blu-ray standard. It supports 10-bit color, which renders 1,024 shades, one billion colors and 1,000 nits of brightness. See nit.

Dolby Vision
Dolby Vision supports 12-bit color, which equates to 4,096 shades, 68 billion colors and 10,000 nits, although most displays cannot handle more than 4,000 nits. See Dolby HDR.

Both HDR10 and Dolby Vision use meta-data that compliant TVs interpret but non-HDR TVs ignore. However, HDR10 meta-data affects the overall content, whereas Dolby Vision meta-data can change from scene to scene.

HLG (Hybrid Log Gamma)
Developed by the broadcast industry, HLG is the newest of the three. HLG does not use meta-data but adds a logarithmic curve to the standard dynamic range (SDR) gamma curve. HLG is compatible with old and new TVs. See contrast ratio and PQ.
References in periodicals archive ?
A three-dimensional structure of GATA3 was built by Swiss-model (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/workspace/) and then visualized by Swiss-PdbViewer (version 4.1, http://spdbv.vital-it.ch/).
For quantification of Foxp3, Gata3, Rorc, Tnfa, Tbx21, Ccr2, and CCr5, the gene expression assays Mm00475162_m1, Mm00484683_m1, Mm01261022, Mm00443258_m1, Mm00450960, Mm00438270, and Mm01216171 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, DA, USA) were used, respectively.
These features were suspicious for a high-grade subtype of urothelial carcinoma, and thus immunohistochemistry was performed with a Ventana Benchmark Ultra using antibodies to bcl-2 (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), keratin 20 (rabbit monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), desmin (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), p16 (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), p40 (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), GATA3 (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Cell Marque), p53 (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Ventana), and OSCAR pankeratin (mouse monoclonal, ready-to-use, Cell Marque).
Each Th cell subset expresses a unique set of transcription factors and produces hallmark cytokines [2], with Th2 cells being controlled by the master transcription factor, GATA3. Differentiated Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in inflammatory asthma and atopy, and constitute a defense against extracellular pathogens during inflammation.
Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-[gamma], tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha], IL-2, T-bet, STAT1, and GATA3 was performed on equal amounts of cDNA using GoTaq qPCR Master Mix (Promega).
Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on the cell block and core biopsy sections using antibodies TTF-1 (1:200; Leica), thyroglobulin (1:1000; Dako), ER (1:50; Dako), PR (premade; Leica), GATA3 (1:200; Cell Marque), GCDFP-15 (1:500; Leica), CD56 (Premade; Leica), synaptophysin (1:200; Dako), chromogranin (1:200; Cell Marque), pAx8 (1:100; Cell Marque), villin (1:100; Leica), CK 7 (1:400; Dako) and CK20 (1:200; Novocastra).
Early phase overexpression of GATA2 and GATA3 are negatively regulate adipogenesis through downregulation of PPAR[gamma] and C/EBP[alpha] and is supported by many studies including Berberine (Hu and Davies, 2009; Tong et al., 2005).
Andrographolide also increased GATA3 mRNA expression but decreased T-bet and ROR[gamma]t mRNA expressions [182].
TORONTO, Ont., August 25, 2013 -- Stem cell scientists here have discovered the gene GATA3 has a role in how blood stem cells renew themselves, a finding that advances the quest to expand these cells in the lab for clinical use in bone marrow transplantation, a procedure that saves thousands of lives every year.
Un estudio reciente de asociacion del genoma completo de LH ha confirmado la fuerte relacion entre la region del HLA y el riesgo de LH e identificaron tres nuevos loci de susceptibilidad en 2p16.1 [rs1432295, gen REL, odds ratio (OR) = 1,22], 8q24.21 [rs2019960, gen PVT1, OR = 1,33] y 10p14 [rs501764, GATA3, OR = 1,25] (71).
Mutations in GATA3, a dual zinc-finger transcription factor, cause the autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome, and down-regulation of GATA3 results in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
UCSF scientists describe for the first time how the protein, known as GATA3 - which is abnormal or absent in many cases of human breast cancer - normally acts downstream in biochemical pathways to prevent the distant spread of cancer, an event called metastasis.