The performances of the prepared GDEs, both at the anode and at the cathode side, were compared with those of a commercial GDE reference sample (E-TEK LT140) in a lab-scale single cell.
Two nozzles with different apertures (diameter higher than 1 mm and lower than 1 mm for GDE1 and GDE2, resp.) were used and the properties of the two obtained GDEs were compared with reference electrode (Ref.), E-TEK LT140 with a catalytic loading (Pt/C) of 0.5 mg/[cm.sup.2].
Two GDEs were obtained by spray coating; the surface morphology and the catalytic Pt-particle average size are comparable with commercial samples, and they do not seem to depend on the nature of the substrate or on some preparation procedures (e.g., nozzle dimension).
Interpretation of GDEs from molecular marker data may be confounded by assuming that genetic markers segregate independently, comigrating fragments are homologous, and genome coverage is adequate.
The general disparity between genetic diversity levels detected by pedigree and molecular marker-based GDEs, and the corresponding low correlations often detected between the two matrices may result from violation of certain assumptions made when computing these estimates.
Further research to assay the ability of selection pressure and genetic drift to skew levels and distributions of pedigree-based GDEs may provide quantitative measures of the importance of this source of error between pedigree and DNA marker-based diversity estimates.
Two statistical measures applied in this study, bootstrapping and AMOVA, appear to support different conclusions regarding degree of hierarchical structure observed in the distribution of GDEs among wheat cultivars adapted to the PNW.
HRS) (Table 6), and were correlated (r = 0.79) with means GDEs between market class (Table 6).
Because apparent patterns of genetic diversity among these 54 cultivars were revealed by mean GDEs, UPGMA cluster analysis, and MDS, an AMOVA was conducted to apportion variation into three hierarchical levels: 1) growth habit, 2) market classes within growth habit, and 3) cultivars within market class.
* [g.sup.X.sub.t-1] [less than or equal to] [g.sup.Y.sub.t-1]; the growth rate of country X is not higher than that of country Y in year t - 1, the year just before the GDE.
Concerning the growth patterns of two countries X and Y, a period [t, t + k] is defined as a GDE led by country X if the following conditions are met: