Transferase

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transferase

[′tranz·fə‚rās]
(biochemistry)
Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from one molecule to another.

Transferase

 

any of a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from one compound (the donor) to another (the acceptor). Transferases are common in plant and animal tissues, as well as in microorganisms. They play a leading role in intermediary metabolism, participating in the transformations of carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biologically important compounds.

The transferase class includes more than 450 enzymes, divided by the chemical nature of the group being transferred into subclasses. Examples include the subclasses that catalyze the transfer of single-carbon groups (methyltransferases), glycosyl groups (glycosyltransferases), nitrogen-bearing groups (aminotransferases, or transaminases), and phosphate groups (phosphotransferases). The transferases of the various subclasses have different coenzymes.

The mechanism of the catalytic action of the transferases studied to date includes the formation of an intermediate made up of the enzyme and group being transferred. For example, in the transfer of the acetyl radical (CH3CO—), an acetylated enzyme is formed in the first stage of the reaction, followed by the transfer of the radical to the acceptor and the liberation of the enzyme. The names of transferases are formed according to the sequence dononacceptor-transferred group-transferase. For example, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphate group from adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) to creatine is called ATP:creatine-phosphotransferase. Several transferases have been obtained in crystalline form.

REFERENCES

Nomenklatura fermentov. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Kretovich, V. L. Vvedenie v enzimologiiu, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

V. V. ZUEVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The present study supports the hypothesis that excessive alcohol drinking increases the plasma GGT. Self-reporting of alcohol drinking under-estimates the true risk.
Evaluation of serological study of anaplasmosis positive camel samples and healthy camel's samples demonstrated the increase in AST, ALT, ALP, GGT and decrease in albumin and total protein in case of anaplasmosis.
When GGT is inhibited, it completely eliminates the kidney toxicity associated with a widely used type of chemotherapy.
(3) -Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) levels tend to parallel alkaline phosphatase elevations that originate from the liver (15,16).
Correlations between GGT and Other Risk Factors in Young Patients with ACS.
Biological Variation of GGT. (A), median (horizontal bar) (minimum--maximum) for each participant ordered by country.
In terms of lung cancer, there are observable metabolic changes, described with the lower de Ritis coefficient at the expanse of the increased ALT activity accompanied with the increased activity of GGT and ALP, as well as dropped LDH activity (Table 1).
Serum GGT values were measured in 73 heavy drinkers (more than 20 drinks/week: usual number of drinks per occasion [greater than or equal to] five); all males; Albanian nationality; mean age 42 [+ or -] 4.9 years a range of 25-66 years old.
Subjects with metabolic syndrome tended to be older in age, be male, have a higher BMI, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GGT, and fatty liver prevalence, and have lower platelet counts.
The highest GGT level was observed in the group of patients with HCV (96.87 UI/L); no difference was observed between HBV-AC and HBV-IC (56.69 and 58.75 UI/L, respectively).
However, the associations between elevated serum GGT and T2D, insulin resistance, and islet beta-cell function were built on epidemiological observational studies.